Mohammed Nuruzzaman

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Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Mohammed Nuruzzaman earned a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Alberta in 2003 and has taught at different universities in Canada, Bangladesh and Kuwait.

Dr. Nuruzzaman specializes in international relations theory, global political economy, human rights and human security, great powers in the global order, and politics and international relations of the Middle East. His major publications have appeared in leading peer-reviewed international journals, including Canadian Journal of Political Science, International Studies Perspectives, Cooperation and Conflict, International Studies, International Area Studies Review, Journal of Contemporary Asia, and Journal of Asian and African Studies, among others.

Winner of some prestigious scholarships and fellowships, including Durham Senior International Research Fellowship 2016 - 17, KFAS (Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences) research grants in 2013, and the GUST - UMSL Summer Research Fellowship in 2011


Ph.D. in Political Science, University of Alberta (2003).
M. A. in International Relations, University of Dhaka (1991)


International Relations Theory; Globalization and Global Political Economy; International Security Studies (traditional and non-traditional); Foreign Policy Analysis; International Organizations and Global Governance; Politics and International Relations of the Middle East & South Asia; Political Islam


Scopus Publications


Scholar Citations


Scholar h-index


Scholar i10-index

Scopus Publications

  • Adopting workload-based staffing norms at public sector health facilities in Bangladesh: evidence from two districts
    Md Nuruzzaman, Tomas Zapata, Valeria De Oliveira Cruz, Sabina Alam, Samiun Nazrin Bente Kamal Tune, and Taufique Joarder

    Human Resources for Health, eISSN: 14784491, Published: January 2022 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Background Bangladesh’s Health system is characterized by severe shortage and unequitable distribution of the formally trained health workforce. In this context, government of Bangladesh uses fixed staffing norms for its health facilities. These norms do not always reflect the actual requirement in reality. This study was conducted in public sector health facilities in two selected districts to assess the existing staffing norms with the purpose of adopting better norms and a more efficient utilization of the existing workforce. Methods To carry out this assessment, WHO’s Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method was applied. Selection of the two districts out of 64 and a total of 24 health facilities were made in consultation with the formally established steering committee of the Ministry of Health. Health facilities, which were performing well in serving the patients during 2016–2017, were selected. This assessment examined staffing requirement of 20 staff categories. Results Based on the computer-generated WISN results, most of the staff categories were found to have a workload pressure of Very High (seven out of 20 staff categories), followed by Extremely High (five staff categories). Two staff categories had high, three had moderately high, two normal, and one low workload. Nurses were found to be predominantly occupied with support activities (50–60% of working time), instead of actual nursing care. Regarding vacancy, if all the vacant posts were filled, understandably, the workload would reduce, but not yet sufficient to meet the existing staff requirements such as consultants, general physicians and nurses at the district and sub-district/upazila-based hospitals. Conclusion The existing staffing norms fall short of the WISN staffing requirement. The results provide evidence to prompt a revisit of the staffing policies and adopt workload-based norms. This can be supplemented by reviewing the scope of practice of the staff categories in their respective health facilities. In the short term, government might consider redistributing existing workforce as per workload. In the long term, revision of staffing norms is needed to provide quality health services for all.

  • Review of hydraulics of Floating Treatment Islands retrofitted in waterbodies receiving stormwater
    Md Nuruzzaman, A.H.M. Faisal Anwar, Ranjan Sarukkalige, and Dipok Chandra Sarker

    Science of the Total Environment, ISSN: 00489697, eISSN: 18791026, Volume: 801, Published: 20 December 2021 Elsevier BV
    Stormwater pollution causes an excessive influx of nutrients and metals to the receiving waterbodies (stormwater ponds, lakes, and rivers), which can cause eutrophication and metal toxicity. One of the most cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to stormwater pollution is constructing Floating Treatment Islands (FTIs) within the waterbodies receiving stormwater runoff. Treatment efficiency of FTIs depends on many factors including plant species, temperature, detention time, and pollutant loading rate. Another important factor is FTI hydraulics, which determines the amount of inflow to the root zone and residence time, greatly impacting the treatment. However, only a few studies refer to the hydraulics of waterbodies retrofitted with FTIs. This paper reviews available literature on field-scale, laboratory-scale and numerical studies on the hydraulics of FTI retrofitted waterbodies. Because of limited knowledge on the factors affecting hydraulics of waterbodies retrofitted with FTIs, current practices cannot ensure maximum hydraulic performance of this system. This review paper identifies different factors affecting the FTI hydraulics, investigates knowledge gaps, and provides future research direction for hydraulically efficient design of FTIs to treat stormwater. It was found that there is a need to investigate the impact of new design parameters such as FTI shape, FTI coverage, inlet-outlet configurations, and shape of waterbody on the hydraulic performance of FTI retrofitted waterbodies. A lack of dimensional analysis on FTI retrofitted waterbodies in existing literature revealed that field-scale values were not properly scaled down in laboratory experiments. Although a few short-circuiting prevention mechanisms (SPMs) were used in different field-scale studies, those mechanisms may be vulnerable to short-circuiting in the vertical dimension. It was revealed that studying the role of eddy diffusion and gap layer for vertical short-circuiting can help designing better SPMs. This review also identified that further investigation is required to incorporate root flexibility in the current modeling approach of FTI retrofitted waterbodies.

  • Nexus between household energy consumption and economic growth in Bangladesh (1975–2018)
    Guoxing Zhang, Md Nuruzzaman, and Bin Su

    Energy Policy, ISSN: 03014215, Volume: 156, Published: September 2021 Elsevier BV

  • Piloting an acceptable and feasible menstrual hygiene products disposal system in urban and rural schools in Bangladesh
    Farjana Jahan, Md. Nuruzzaman, Farhana Sultana, Mehjabin Tishan Mahfuz, Mahbubur Rahman, Farhana Akhand, Stephen P. Luby, Leanne Unicomb, and Peter J. Winch

    BMC Public Health, eISSN: 14712458, Published: 7 September 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Background Access to washroom facilities and a place to dispose of menstrual waste are prerequisites for optimal menstrual hygiene management in schools. Like other low- and middle-income countries, Bangladeshi schools lack facilities for girls to change and dispose of their menstrual absorbents. We explored existing systems for disposing of menstrual absorbent wastes in urban and rural schools of Bangladesh and assessed the feasibility and acceptability of alternative disposal options. Methods We explored how girls dispose of their menstrual products, identified girls’ preferences and choices for a disposal system and piloted four disposal options in four different schools. We then implemented one preferred option in four additional schools. We explored girls’, teachers’, and janitors’ perspectives and evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and potential for sustainability of the piloted disposal system. Results Barriers to optimal menstrual hygiene management included lack of functional toilets and private locations for changing menstrual products, and limited options for disposal. Girls, teachers, and janitors preferred and ranked the chute disposal system as their first choice, because it has large capacity (765 L), is relatively durable, requires less maintenance, and will take longer time to fill. During implementation of the chute disposal system in four schools, girls, teachers, and janitors reported positive changes in toilet cleanliness and menstrual products disposal resulting from the intervention. Conclusions The chute disposal system for menstrual products is a durable option that does not require frequent emptying or regular maintenance, and is accepted by schoolgirls and janitors alike, and can improve conditions for menstrual hygiene management in schools. However, regular supervision, motivation of girls to correctly dispose of their products, and a long-term maintenance and management plan for the system are necessary.

  • Assessment of staffing needs for physicians and nurses at Upazila health complexes in Bangladesh using WHO workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method
    Taufique Joarder, Samiun Nazrin Bente Kamal Tune, Md Nuruzzaman, Sabina Alam, Valeria de Oliveira Cruz, and Tomas Zapata

    BMJ Open, eISSN: 20446055, Published: 13 February 2020 BMJ
    ObjectiveThis study aimed to assess the current workload and staffing need of physicians and nurses for delivering optimum healthcare services at the Upazila Health Complexes (UpHCs) in Bangladesh.DesignMixed-methods, combining qualitative (eg, document reviews, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, observations) and quantitative methods (time-motion survey).SettingStudy was conducted in 24 health facilities of Bangladesh. However, UpHCs being the nucleus of primary healthcare in Bangladesh, this manuscript limits itself to reporting the findings from the providers at four UpHCs under this project.Participants18 physicians and 51 nurses, males and females.Primary outcome measuresWorkload components were defined based on inputs from five experts, refined by nine service providers. Using WHO Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) software, standard workload, category allowance factor, individual allowance factor, total required number of staff, WISN difference and WISN ratio were calculated.ResultsPhysicians have very high (WISN ratio 0.43) and nurse high (WISN ratio 0.69) workload pressure. 50% of nurses’ time are occupied with support activities, instead of nursing care. There are different workloads among the same staff category in different health facilities. If only the vacant posts are filled, the workload is reduced. In fact, sanctioned number of physicians and nurses is more than actual need.ConclusionsIt is evident that high workload pressures prevail for physicians and nurses at the UpHCs. This reveals high demand for these health workforces in the respective subdistricts. WISN method can aid the policy-makers in optimising utilisation of existing human resources. Therefore, the government should adopt flexible health workforce planning and recruitment policy to manage the patient load and disease burden. WISN should, thus, be incorporated as a planning tool for health managers. There should be a regular review of health workforce management decisions, and these should be amended based on periodic reviews.

  • Renewable energy in Bangladesh: current situation and future prospect
    Mahadi Hasan Masud, Md Nuruzzaman, Raju Ahamed, Anan Ashrabi Ananno, and A. N. M. Amanullah Tomal

    International Journal of Sustainable Energy, ISSN: 14786451, eISSN: 1478646X, Pages: 132-175, Published: 7 February 2020 Informa UK Limited
    ABSTRACT Energy insufficiency is obstructing the socio-economic and industrial improvement of Bangladesh. Renewable energy contributes about 560 Megawatt (MW) of the total electricity production of 20,430 MW, which can be a sustainable solution to the demand-supply crisis. This paper, summarises the current energy situation of Bangladesh and examines the available renewable energy resources and their future prospect. It has been revealed that Bangladesh is heavily (62%) relying on natural gas although government has already taken steps to generate electricity from renewable energy sources. Current policies and legislations related to generation of renewable energy in Bangladesh have been discussed explicitly. Finally, some suggestions have been made to tackle the ongoing energy crisis in the country, in addition to the renewable energy.Abbreviations: GDP: Gross domestic product; RNPP: Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant; Tcf: Trillion cubic feet; IDCOL: Infrastructure development company limited; BPDB: Bangladesh Power Development Board: GS: Grameen Shakti; BWDB: Bangladesh Water Development Board: USD: United States Dollar; IPP: Independent power producer: BCAS: Bangladesh center for advanced studies; NWPGCL: North West Power Generation Company Limited: BCSIR: Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; EGCB: Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh: WRA: Wind Resource Assessment; REB: Rural Electrification Board: BRAC: Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee; kW: Kilowatt: PJ: Petajoules; MW: Megawatt: IFRAD: Institute for fuel research and Development; GWh: Gigawatt hours: ICS: Improved Cooking Stoves; MWh: Megawatt hours: DoE: Department of Environment; TWh: Trillion-watt hour: DLS: Department of Livestock Services; RPCL: Rural Power Company Limited: mmcfd: million cubic feet per day; APSCL: Ashugang Power Station Company Limited: BSCIC: Bangladesh Small & Cottage Industries Corporation (BSCIC); GOB: Government of Bangladesh: BADC: Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation; SREDA: Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority: DIDA: Danish International Development Agency; LGED: Local Government Engineering Directorate: BAU: Bangladesh Agricultural University; NGO: Non-Governmental Organization: HBRI: Housing & Building Research Institute; IRENA: International Renewable energy Agency: : BARD: Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development; ETP: Electronic Traffic Pricing: BCCD: Bangladesh Commission for Christian Development; PV: Photovoltaic: BRRI: Bangladesh Rice Research Institute; SHS: Solar Home Systems: NDBMP: National Domestic Biogas and Manure Program; TOE: Tonne of oil equivalent: K/km: Kelvin/kilometer; LEAP: Long range Energy Alternative Planning

  • Effects of complexity of handwashing instructions on handwashing procedure replication in low-income urban slums in Bangladesh: A randomized non-inferiority field trial
    Nuhu Amin, Dawn D. Sagerman, Fosiul A. Nizame, Kishor K. Das, Md Nuruzzaman, Jihnhee Yu, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen P. Luby, and Pavani K. Ram

    Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN: 20439083, eISSN: 24089362, Pages: 416-428, Published: September 2019 IWA Publishing
    Abstract Handwashing instructions vary in complexity, with some recommending multiple steps. To assess whether complex handwashing instructions changed handwashing procedure replication, we conducted a randomized non-inferiority trial in a low-income area, Dhaka. We randomly assigned mothers and children aged 5–10 years to one of three handwashing instruction sets: simple (N = 85 mothers/134 children), moderate (N = 75 mothers/148 children), or complex (84 mothers/147 children). Simple instructions had three steps: wet, lather, and rinse hands, and moderate included the simple instructions plus steps to scrub palms, backs of hands, and dry hands in the air. Complex instructions included moderate instructions plus steps to scrub between fingers, under nails, and lather for 20 s. After baseline, cue cards were used to promote handwashing instructions, and adherence after 2 weeks of interventions was evaluated. Compliance with handwashing procedure replication to all instructions in simple, moderate, and complex increased after the intervention among mothers and children. Compliance to all instructions in the simple group was higher in the simple group (100%) compared to all instructions in moderate (47%) and complex instruction groups (38%). Simple handwashing steps are easier to remember for long time periods compared to complex steps.

  • Chasing the dream: The Salman doctrine and saudi arabia’s bid for regional dominance
    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    Insight Turkey, ISSN: 1302177X, eISSN: 25647717, Pages: 41-51, Published: Summer 2019 Insight Turkey/SETA Vakfi

  • Contribution of Rainwater to the Irrigation Requirement for Paddy Cultivation at Tanore Upazila in Rajshahi, Bangladesh
    Md Rashidul Hasan, Md Nuruzzaman, and Abdullah Al Mamun

    Air, Soil and Water Research, ISSN: 11786221, Published: 1 April 2019 SAGE Publications
    Groundwater extraction for irrigation in Bangladesh has caused groundwater depletion, especially in the Northern region. As such, shifting reliance from groundwater to surface water is one of the solutions to mitigate this problem. This study aims at investigating the contribution of effective rainfall to the total consumptive use requirement of rice cultivated in Tanore, Rajshahi, in Bangladesh. The prospect of rainwater harvesting using ponds and its contribution to the consumptive use requirement of rice was also determined. Effective rainfall, temperature, monthly percentage of bright sunshine hours, and consumptive use factor for rice data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) and Barind Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA). Blaney-Criddle method was used to calculate total consumptive use requirement of rice. Analysis results showed that from June to September, there is no requirement of irrigation due to high rainfall in this period. It was revealed that total consumptive use requirement of rice in Tanore averaged at 436 million m3 of water between the period of 2005 and 2012. Effective rainfall contributed to about 38% of the total consumptive use in this period. It was also found that another 5% of the total consumptive use requirement could be supplied by rainwater harvesting using the ponds of Tanore.

  • Access to health services by informal sector workers in Bangladesh
    Valeria de Oliveira Cruz, MohammadTouhidul Islam, and Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    WHO South-East Asia journal of public health, eISSN: 23045272, Pages: 35-37, Published: 1 April 2019 Medknow
    According to the constitution of Bangladesh, health is a right and, in 2012, initial work towards universal health coverage was marked by introduction of a health-care financing strategy. However, for 2016, Bangladesh’s domestic general government health expenditure was only 0.42% of gross domestic product, making it one of the lowest-spending countries in the world, with 72% of current health expenditure coming from out-of-pocket spending. One factor that is key to the challenge of providing universal health coverage in Bangladesh is the large proportion of the population who work in the informal sector – an estimated 51.7 million people or 85.1% of the labour force in 2017. Most workers engaged in the informal sector lack job security, social benefits and legal protection. The evidence base on the health needs and health-seeking behaviours of this large population is sparse. The government has recognized that increased efforts are needed to ensure that the country’s notable successes in improving maternal, neonatal and child health need to be expanded to cover the full range of health services to the whole population, and specifically the more marginalized and impoverished sectors of society. In addition to the universal need to increase funding and to improve the availability and quality of primary health care, workers in the informal sector need to be targeted through an explicit mechanism, with enhanced budgetary allocation to health facilities serving these communities. Importantly, there is a clear need to build an evidence base to inform policies that seek to ensure that informal sector workers have greater access to quality health services.

  • Determining ammonia nitrogen decay rate of Malaysian river water in a laboratory flume
    M. Nuruzzaman, A. A. Mamun, and M. N. B. Salleh

    International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN: 17351472, eISSN: 17352630, Pages: 1249-1256, Published: 1 June 2018 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    There is lack of information regarding ammonia nitrogen (AN), (i.e. NH3-N) decay rate of river water in tropical regions like Malaysia. AN decay rate is a very important kinetic parameter to estimate NH3-N, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and dissolved oxygen concentrations of river water by using computer models. This study presents determination of ammonia nitrogen decay rate of river water in the tropical environment of Malaysia. A laboratory flume was used to conduct twelve experiments. The flume was used to represent the turbulent condition of a typical river. Ammonia nitrogen decay rate for the tropical environment of Malaysia was observed to be between 0.194 and 0.554 per day. Median value of AN decay rate was 0.26 per day, which is slightly lower than the global median value of 0.295 per day. To check the accuracy of flume experiments, the AN decay rate of Pusu River obtained from the flume experiment was used to calibrate and validate ammonia nitrogen concentration of the river by using water quality analysis and simulation program (WASP). Very good calibration and validation results were achieved, which substantiated the accuracy of the flume experiments.

  • A Modified Laboratory Approach to Determine Reaeration Rate for River Water
    Md Nuruzzaman, Abdullah Al-Mamun, and Md Noor Bin Salleh

    Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, ISSN: 2193567X, eISSN: 21914281, Pages: 2037-2051, Published: 1 April 2018 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    It is reported that reaeration rates determined from laboratory investigation may not suit well in predicting reaeration rate of natural streams. Sampling method during reaeration experiment is a potential source of error in laboratory estimation of reaeration rate coefficient for river waters, which has been addressed in this research. A modified method based on sampling procedure in a flume was adopted to develop a reaeration rate equation for Pusu River in Malaysia, which is demographically a very important river. An important feature including several culverts along the course of the river was also considered to model dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. DO was calibrated and validated using water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) considering appropriate kinetic rate coefficients for Pusu River. Performance of the new reaeration rate equation and other process equations in the calibration and validation data was assessed in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean error between observed and predicted data and $${R}^{\\mathrm {2}}$$R2 value. Study results revealed that the equation developed in this research considering the impact of culverts on reaeration rate predicted DO in Pusu River with improved accuracy as compared to the other equations. RMSEs were found to be 0.083 and 0.067 mg/L for calibration and validation data, respectively. Mean errors of observed and model-predicted data were 0.06 and 0.05 mg/L for calibration and validation, respectively. The $${R}^{\\mathrm {2}}$$R2 value was 0.99 in both cases. The study results facilitate accuracy in future studies on DO of Pusu River.

  • Strategies for Mitigating Supply-Side Barriers in the Apparel Supply Chain: A Study on the Apparel Industry of Bangladesh
    Md. Maruf Hossan Chowdhury, Nusrat Jusy Umme, and Md. Nuruzzaman

    Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, ISSN: 09722696, eISSN: 09740198, Pages: 41-52, Published: 1 March 2018 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract With the increasingly complex business environment, supply chain managers are required to mitigate both upstream (supply-side) and downstream (demand-side) barriers in order to remain competitive. Failure to address both supply- and demand-side barriers carries far reaching consequences which can have a significant impact on the performance of the whole supply chain. While a substantial number of studies have been undertaken on supply chain barriers to performance, research on prioritizing supply-side barriers to select best mitigation strategies is rare, especially in the context of sourcing from low-cost countries. Hence, the objective of this research is to identify the supply-side barriers and the corresponding mitigation strategies in the context of the apparel industry in Bangladesh by applying an analytical hierarchy process and quality function deployment method. This study finds that long lead time, interruption in utility supply as well as on-time supply problems are the most prioritized supply-side barriers. In order to address these barriers, the most important strategies are efficiency in planning, quick response and commitment for meeting on-time delivery. The implications of findings of the research are also discussed.

  • Experimenting biochemical oxygen demand decay rates of Malaysian river water in a laboratory flume
    Md. Nuruzzaman, Abdullah Al-Mamun, and Md. Noor Bin Salleh

    Environmental Engineering Research, ISSN: 12261025, eISSN: 2005968X, Pages: 99-106, Published: March 2018 Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
    Lack of information on the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) decay rates of river water under the tropical environment has triggered this study with an aim to fill the gap. Raw sewage, treated sewage, river water and tap water were mixed in different proportions to represent river water receiving varying amounts and types of wastewater and fed in a laboratory flume in batch mode. Water samples were recirculated in the flume for 30 hours and BOD and Carbonaceous BOD (CBOD) concentrations were measured at least six times. Decay rates were obtained by fitting the measured data in the first order kinetic equation. After conducting 12 experiments, the range of BOD and CBOD decay rates were found to be 0.191 to 0.92 per day and 0.107 to 0.875 per day, respectively. Median decay rates were 0.344 and 0.258 per day for BOD and CBOD, respectively, which are slightly higher than the reported values in literatures. A relationship between CBOD decay rate and BOD decay rate is proposed as k_CBOD=〖0.8642k〗_BOD-0.0349 where, kCBOD is CBOD decay rate and kBOD is BOD decay rate. The equation can be useful to extrapolate either of the decay rates when any of the rates is unknown.

  • Muslim traditionalism and violence in the middle east
    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    Strategic Analysis, ISSN: 09700161, eISSN: 17540054, Pages: 571-577, Published: 2 November 2017 Informa UK Limited
    In recent years, especially after the 9/11 attacks on America, Western academics and policy-makers have increasingly viewed Islam as an inherently violent religion and Muslims as terrorists. Several academic studies, though without much empirical evidence, have found that Islamic religion is more fundamentalist and more conflictand violence-prone, both domestically and internationally. However, the reality is that most Muslim countries are not fundamentalist and most of them are also relatively free of violence. A large percentage of Muslims, approximately 600 million, live in Southeast Asia and China but evidence of violence, driven by fundamentalism, is either rare, or not of much concern. Similarly, hard data on religious conflicts, during 1–2008, reveals that it is not Islamic but Christian civilization that witnessed the bloodiest conflicts in history. Some 177 million people were killed in religious conflicts and political violence in Christian countries (excluding the erstwhile antitheist communist bloc), while for Islamic civilization the death toll was 31 million for the same period. Contrary to this reality, many Western leaders also see Islam as equivalent to violence and terrorism. Incumbent US President Donald Trump, for example, vilified Muslims as ‘terrorists’ during the 2016 presidential election campaigns and capitalised on Islamophobia as a winning strategy. Former President George W. Bush, in the run up to the March 2003 invasion of Iraq, branded the Muslim Iraqis ‘Gog’ and ‘Magog’, a Biblical reference to the enemies of God, to partially justify the invasion on religious grounds. Behind such malign views and perceptions of Islam and the Muslims in the West lie the recent spikes in violence in the Muslim Middle Eastern countries. The outbreak of civil wars and sectarian fighting in Iraq, Syria and Yemen are characterised by a complex set of forces and interests—strategic stakes of external actors (read US and Russia) in the region, tough competition for power and influence between regional rivals (Iran and Saudi Arabia), and the resurgence of Islamic fundamentalist forces to capture power, redraw the political map, revive the caliphate and beat the West out of the region. A recent study by Gleditsch and Rudolfsen on violence in the Muslim countries presents a number of important findings: first, Muslim countries are experiencing a disproportionate percentage of the post-cold war civil wars; secondly, in terms of other internal forms of violence (such as repressive human rights policies), their overall record is much higher than the non-Muslim countries; and thirdly, their participation in interstate wars is also higher than the global average.What is striking is that the Islamic fundamentalists, a small group of violent Islamists, are involved in most of the civil wars in the Muslim world,

  • Conflicts in Sunni political Islam and their implications
    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    Strategic Analysis, ISSN: 09700161, eISSN: 17540054, Pages: 285-296, Published: 4 May 2017 Informa UK Limited
    Traditionally, the Shi’a–Sunni divide and the associated dynamics of the geopolitical struggle for power and dominance, between the minority Shi’as and the majority Sunnis, have defined intra-Islamic relations. Often sidelined were the political differences between and among groups and movements within Shi’a as well as Sunni Islam. This paper seeks to examine the ideological and political conflicts between the two dominant brands of Sunni political Islam – the conservative Islamists led by Saudi Arabia and the militant Islamists who grouped first under the banner of al-Qaeda and later the Islamic State. It briefly traces the origins of both brands of Sunni political Islam, maps out their goals and strategies, and highlights their implications for the Middle East region and the West at large. The paper concludes that militant Sunni political Islam has emerged as a dominant entity and it poses the most dreadful challenge to contemporary Middle East region and the West.

  • A brief account of river rehabilitation experiences
    Md Nuruzzaman, Abdullah Al Mamun, and Md Noor Bin Salleh

    IIUM Engineering Journal, ISSN: 1511788X, eISSN: 22897860, Pages: 27-41, Published: 2017 IIUM Press
    Rehabilitation of polluted rivers has gained great importance to many countries in the world since the last century as the river is a vital water resource and it is being altered because of urbanization and industrialization causing great threat to the environment. Literatures on river rehabilitation projects have been reviewed focusing on the developing part of the world such as USA, UK, Japan etc. Rehabilitation issues of rivers crossing borders have also been discussed in this paper. Key lessons from different experiences in different regions have been extracted and comparison has been done. Statistics on different experiences has also been presented. Finally, some guidelines have been provided based on different experiences, which should be helpful for developed and developing nations making river rehabilitation efforts.

  • Challenges in the rehabilitation of the Pusu River
    International Journal of Conservation Science, ISSN: 2067533X, eISSN: 20678223, Pages: 121-130, Published: 2017

  • Impediments to River Rehabilitation
    Md. Nuruzzaman, Abdullah Al Mamun, and Md. Noor Bin Salleh

    Environmental Quality Management, ISSN: 10881913, eISSN: 15206483, Pages: 5-21, Published: Winter 2016 Wiley
    Rehabilitation of river ecosystems is generally initiated when a river is no longer able to provide benefits to humans and other living beings. The major purposes of river rehabilitation projects are improving water quality, conserving nature, rehabilitating fisheries and riparian habitats, flood mitigation, and creating recreational opportunities. For a river rehabilitation project to be successful, it must have specific and clearly explained objectives, although these objectives will vary for each project depending upon factors such as economics, public demand, ecosystem benefits, and the like. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of the purposes that drive river rehabilitation projects and we identify and discuss impediments that can cause a project to deviate from its intended goals. We also discuss major constraints on rehabilitation efforts that can result in failed projects.

  • Hygiene practices during food preparation in Rural Bangladesh: Opportunities to improve the impact of handwashing interventions
    Fosiul A. Nizame, Elli Leontsini, Stephen P. Luby, Md. Nuruzzaman, Shahana Parveen, Peter J. Winch, Pavani K. Ram, and Leanne Unicomb

    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN: 00029637, Pages: 288-297, Published: August 2016 American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    This study explored the steps of food preparation, related handwashing opportunities, current practices, and community perceptions regarding foods at high-risk of contamination such as mashed foods and salads. In three rural Bangladeshi villages, we collected qualitative and observational data. Food preparation was a complex and multistep process. Food preparation was interrupted by tasks that could contaminate the preparers' hands, after which they continued food preparation without washing hands. Community members typically ate hand-mixed, uncooked mashed food and salad as accompaniments to curry and rice at meals. Hand-mixed dried foods were mostly consumed as a snack. Observers recorded handwashing during preparation of these foods. Among 24 observed caregivers, of 85 opportunities to wash hands with soap during food preparation, washing hands with soap occurred twice, both times after cutting fish, whereas washing hands with water alone was common. A simple and feasible approach is promotion of handwashing with soap upon entering and re-entering the food preparation area, and ensuring that everything needed for handwashing should be within easy reach.

  • China’s rise, the USA and global order: Contested perspectives and an alternative approach
    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    International Area Studies Review, ISSN: 22338659, eISSN: 20491123, Pages: 177-194, Published: June 2016 SAGE Publications
    China’s recent economic ascendance and its probable impact on the post-war global order have divided China watchers or sinologists into two broad opposing camps – the school of alarmists and the school of deniers. While the alarmist school exaggerates China’s rise as the beginning of a new Sino-centric world order, the denial school rejects the potential of a rising China to challenge and replace the post-war global order shaped and led by the USA. This review essay maps out the major arguments of both camps, critiques their conceptual and methodological shortcomings, highlights the missing points in the debates on China’s projected economic preeminence and emphasizes an alternative approach to account for the rise of Chinese power. It argues that the differing scholarly views on the impacts of China’s economic rise leave us nowhere close to having definitive ideas about China’s actual power status and impacts. Furthermore, the debates are marked by a general lack of comparative analyses on the global socio-economic and political conditions of China’s rise in the modern context and that of imperial Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, Germany in the late 19th century and the USA in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This is where more research is required to clearly understand the rise of China in the contemporary world.

  • Toward a Scalable and Sustainable Intervention for Complementary Food Safety
    Musarrat J. Rahman, Fosiul A. Nizame, Mohammad Nuruzzaman, Farhana Akand, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Sarker Masud Parvez, Christine P. Stewart, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen P. Luby, and Peter J. Winch

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin, ISSN: 03795721, Pages: 186-201, Published: June 2016 SAGE Publications
    Background: Contaminated complementary foods are associated with diarrhea and malnutrition among children aged 6 to 24 months. However, existing complementary food safety intervention models are likely not scalable and sustainable. Objective: To understand current behaviors, motivations for these behaviors, and the potential barriers to behavior change and to identify one or two simple actions that can address one or few food contamination pathways and have potential to be sustainably delivered to a larger population. Methods: Data were collected from 2 rural sites in Bangladesh through semistructured observations (12), video observations (12), in-depth interviews (18), and focus group discussions (3). Results: Although mothers report preparing dedicated foods for children, observations show that these are not separate from family foods. Children are regularly fed store-bought foods that are perceived to be bad for children. Mothers explained that long storage durations, summer temperatures, flies, animals, uncovered food, and unclean utensils are threats to food safety. Covering foods, storing foods on elevated surfaces, and reheating foods before consumption are methods believed to keep food safe. Locally made cabinet-like hardware is perceived to be acceptable solution to address reported food safety threats. Conclusion: Conventional approaches that include teaching food safety and highlighting benefits such as reduced contamination may be a disincentive for rural mothers who need solutions for their physical environment. We propose extending existing beneficial behaviors by addressing local preferences of taste and convenience.

  • Impact of improper landuse changes on flash flood and river system-A case of Sg Pusu
    ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, eISSN: 18196608, Pages: 5372-5379, Published: 20 April 2016

  • Post-nuclear deal Iran: Back to the fold of imperialism?
    Insight Turkey, ISSN: 1302177X, Pages: 51-61, Published: 2016


  • Conflicts, strategic divergences and the survival of economic groupings: Will China–India rivalry make BRICS obsolete?
    M Nuruzzaman
    Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 20578911221108800 2022

  • Assessment of Varietal Attributes of Okra under Foliar Application of Zinc and Boron
    MBJ Maliha, M Nuruzzaman, B Hossain, FA Trina, N Uddin, S Sarkar
    International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 9 (2), 143-149 2022

  • Morpho-physiological Responses of Rice to Salicylic Acid under Drought Stress
    MT Hosain, MS Rahman, M Nuruzzaman, MH Munshi, ASMF Bari
    Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University 20 (1), 1-11 2022

  • Foliar fertilization of micronutrients on the performance of zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) under the Old Meghna Estuarine Flood plain of Bangladesh
    SB Shafiqe, R Ahmed, K Hossen, A Shila, KI Anjum, S Khan, ...
    Research on Crops 23 (2), 380-392 2022

  • Does realism explain the Arab Spring? Neorealist alliance formation theories and the Syrian civil war
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Journal 76 (2), 257-279 2021

  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 invasion in the central nervous system: a host-virus deadlock.
    PK Baral, M Nuruzzaman, MS Uddin, M Ferdous, IH Chowdhury, ...
    Acta Virol 65, 115-126 2021

  • President Trump’s ‘Maximum Pressure’Campaign and Iran’s Endgame
    M Nuruzzaman
    Strategic Analysis 44 (6), 570-582 2020

  • Why BRICS Is No Threat to the Post-war Liberal World Order
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies 57 (1), 51-66 2020

  • Chasing the Dream
    M Nuruzzaman
    Insight Turkey 21 (3), 41-52 2019

  • Contemporary Shia-Sunni sectarian violence
    M Nuruzzaman
    Oxford Bibliographies 2019

  • Expression and DNA methylation of MET1, CMT3 and DRM2 during In Vitro culture of Boesenbergia tundaro (L.) Mansf.
    R Karim, YS Tan, P Singh, M Nuruzzaman, N Khalid, JA Harikrishna
    Philippine Agricultural Scientist 101 (3), 261-270 2018

  • Why Does Trump Sabotage the Iran Deal but Wants to Negotiate with North Korea?
    M Nuruzzaman
    Available at SSRN 3169749 2018

  • Western and Islamic international theories: A comparative analysis
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies 55 (2), 106-129 2018

  • Saudi Arabia's' Vision 2030': will it save or sink the middle east
    M Nuruzzaman
    E-International Relations 2018

  • Muslim Traditionalism and Violence in the Middle East
    M Nuruzzaman
    Strategic Analysis 41 (6), 571-577 2017

  • The rise and rise of Iran: How Tehran has become pivotal to the future of the Middle East
    M Nuruzzaman
    The Conversation 2017

  • President Trump’s Islamophobia and the Muslims: A case study in crisis communication
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Journal of Crisis Communication 1 (1), 16-20 2017

  • Conflicts in Sunni Political Islam and Their Implications
    M Nuruzzaman
    Strategic Analysis 41 (3), 285-296 2017

  • As Aleppo Falls, Iran Rises
    M Nuruzzaman
    National Interest 2016

  • Will Trump cancel Iran deal or practice the Art of the Deal?
    M Nuruzzaman
    Informed Comment 2016


  • The'Responsibility to Protect'Doctrine: Revived in Libya, Buried in Syria
    M Nuruzzaman
    Insight Turkey 15 (2), 57 2013
    Citations: 84

  • Paradigms in conflict: The contested claims of human security, critical theory and feminism
    M Nuruzzaman
    Cooperation and Conflict 41 (3), 285-303 2006
    Citations: 73

  • Neoliberal economic reforms, the rich and the poor in Bangladesh
    M Nuruzzaman
    Journal of Contemporary Asia 34 (1), 33-54 2004
    Citations: 72

  • Beyond the realist theories:“neo-conservative realism” and the American invasion of Iraq
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies Perspectives 7 (3), 239-253 2006
    Citations: 57

  • Politics, economics and Saudi military intervention in Bahrain
    M Nuruzzaman
    Journal of Contemporary Asia 43 (2), 363-378 2013
    Citations: 48

  • Qatar and the Arab Spring: Down the Foreign Policy Slope
    M Nuruzzaman
    Contemporary Arab Affairs 8 (2), 226-238 2015
    Citations: 39

  • Revisiting the category of fragile and failed states in international relations
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies 46 (3), 271-294 2009
    Citations: 35

  • Roles of NAC transcription factors in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. Front Microbiol. 2013; 4: 248
    M Nuruzzaman, AM Sharoni, S Kikuchi
    Epub 2013/09/24. https://doi. org/10.3389/fmicb. 2013. 00248. PubMed PMID 2013
    Citations: 33

  • The World Bank, health policy reforms and the poor
    M Nuruzzaman
    Journal of Contemporary Asia 37 (1), 59-72 2007
    Citations: 29

  • Economic liberalization and poverty in the developing countries
    M Nuruzzaman
    Journal of Contemporary Asia 35 (1), 109-127 2005
    Citations: 22

  • Human security and the Arab spring
    M Nuruzzaman
    Strategic Analysis 37 (1), 52-64 2013
    Citations: 20

  • SAARC and Sub-regional Cooperation: Domestic Politics and Foreign Policies in South Asia
    M Nuruzzaman
    Contemporary South Asia 8 (3) 1999
    Citations: 20

  • Liberal institutionalism and international cooperation after 11 September 2001
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies 45 (3), 193-213 2008
    Citations: 17

  • Why BRICS Is No Threat to the Post-war Liberal World Order
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Studies 57 (1), 51-66 2020
    Citations: 16

  • The challenge of the Islamic State
    M Nuruzzaman
    Global Affairs 1 (3), 297-304 2015
    Citations: 15

  • President Obama’s Middle East policy, 2009-2013
    M Nuruzzaman
    Insight Turkey 17 (1), 171-190 2015
    Citations: 15

  • Federalism and state disintegration-United Pakistan, 1947-1971: some historical lessons for Afghanistan and Iraq
    M Nuruzzaman
    Journal of Asian and African Studies 45 (5), 504-521 2010
    Citations: 15

  • Conflicts between Iran and the Gulf Arab States: an economic evaluation
    M Nuruzzaman
    Strategic Analysis 36 (4), 542-553 2012
    Citations: 13

  • President Trump’s Islamophobia and the Muslims: A case study in crisis communication
    M Nuruzzaman
    International Journal of Crisis Communication 1 (1), 16-20 2017
    Citations: 12

  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Qatar and dispute mediations: a critical investigation
    M Nuruzzaman
    Contemporary Arab Affairs 8 (4), 535-552 2015
    Citations: 12