Zahra Babaei

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Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman,Iran
medical faculty



Leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, Bioteqnology ,Giardiasis


Scopus Publications


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Scopus Publications

  • The potential role of nicotinamide on Leishmania tropica: An assessment of inhibitory effect, cytokines gene expression and arginase profiling
    Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Iraj Sharifi, Mehdi Bamorovat, Alireza Keyhani, Zahra Babaei, Ehsan Salarkia, Rahele Tavakoly, Ahmad Khosravi, Mahshid Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sharifi, and Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    International Immunopharmacology, ISSN: 15675769, eISSN: 18781705, Published: September 2020 Elsevier BV
    Leishmaniasis represents a major health concern worldwide which has no effective treatment modality. Nicotinamide (NAm) has been used for a wide range of applications from anticancer to antimicrobial usage. This study aimed to assess the effect of NAm combination on Leishmania tropica Inhibition, as well as on cytokines gene expression and arginase (ARG) activity in L. tropica-infected macrophages in an in vitro model. The leishmanicidal effects of NAm and Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate, MA) alone and in combination (NAm/MA) were evaluated using a colorimetric assay and macrophage model. Additionally, immunomodulatory effects and enzymatic activity were assessed by analyzing Th1 and Th2 cytokines gene expression and ARG level, respectively, in infected macrophages treated with NAm and MA, alone and in combination. Findings indicated that the NAm/MA combination demonstrated greater inhibitory effects on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigotes compared with each drug individually. Docking results proved the affinity of NAm to IFN-γ, which can affirm the increased levels of IFN-γ, IL-12p40 and TNF-α as well as reductions in IL-10 secretion with a dose-response effect, especially in the combination group. The NAm/MA combination also showed a significant reduction in the level of ARG activity at all concentrations used compared to each drug individually. These findings indicate higher effectiveness of NAm plus MA in reducing parasite growth, promoting immune response and inhibiting ARG level. This combination should be considered as a potential therapeutic regimen for treatment of volunteer patients with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in future control programs.

  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in patients infected with Leishmania tropica: a case control study
    Hajar Shabandoust, Iraj Sharifi, Omid Raiesi, Muhammad Ibrahim Getso, Ebrahim Dezaki Saedi, Ali Afgar, Giti Shirvani, Ehsan Salarkia, and Zahra Babaei

    Journal of Parasitic Diseases, ISSN: 09717196, eISSN: 09750703, Pages: 40-48, Published: 1 March 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Leishmania, an obligate intracellular parasite is eliminated by a strong Th-1 host response. As Vitamin D metabolism and its receptor activity are important factors in human native immune system against some microorganisms, we hypothesized that VDR gene polymorphisms and concentration of Vitamin D might have effect on incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between VDR gene polymorphism and/or the serum vitamin D level and leishmaniasis in the infected patients in comparison to the healthy individuals. In this case–control study, the BsmI, FokI and Taq1 polymorphisms in the VDR gene and serum levels of vitamin D were studied in Iranian infected with Leishmania tropica (n = 50) and healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) and Electrochemiluminescence methods respectively. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software, Chi square and ANOVA tests. The results of this study showed that despite the relatively higher frequency of BsmI-BB, FokI-FF and TaqI-Tt than Non BsmI-BB, Non FokI-FF and Non TaqI-Tt in the patients compared with the healthy individuals, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Based on our findings, the relationship between the VDR polymorphism, the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the susceptibility to Leishmania tropica infection, remains unclear requiring further in-depth studies. However, for better interpretation, it is necessary to consider factors such as the size of the sample examined and the other alleles of VDR, including ApaI.

  • Prevalence and Molecular Subtyping of Blastocystis from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Chronic Urticaria in Iran
    Giti Shirvani, Majid Fasihi-Harandi, Omid Raiesi, Nasrin Bazargan, Mohammad Javad Zahedi, Iraj Sharifi, Behjat Kalantari-Khandani, Maryam Nooshadokht, Hajar Shabandoust, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahimipour, and Zahra Babaei

    Acta Parasitologica, ISSN: 12302821, eISSN: 18961851, Pages: 90-96, Published: 1 March 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH
    Blastocystis is a parasite that colonizes in the human intestine. Its clinical features include diarrhea, abdominal pain, or urticarial and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Spite of being significant genetic diversity and numerous subtypes within the genus there were no associations between its subtypes and symptomatology. Aim of this project was subtyping of the protozoa in 184 Iranian people with history of IBS/IBD (n = 74) or chronic urticaria (n = 59) and individuals referred to general clinic (n = 51). Microscopic and molecular examinations used for identifying and subtyping of Blastocystis. Overall, frequency of the parasite was 24.46% while, 29.41% of people who referred to general clinic, 20.27%, and 25.42% of IBS/IBD and urticarial cases were infected, respectively. Subtyping result showed that 28.89% of all people were infected with Blastocystis sp. while the prevalence of ST3, ST2 and ST1 were 22.22%, 22.22%, and 17.78%, respectively. Blastocystis sp., was identified in most IBS/IBD cases (46.7%) followed with ST2 and ST3 (13.3 and 13.3, respectively). Whereas, in chronic urticaria group ST2(33.3%) was the major subtype and most individuals in control group were infected with ST3 (33.3%). Pearson’s Chi Square test showed no significant differences between the parasite or subtype prevalence and diseases (p > 0.05). Given significant factors have effect on clinical signs including host or parasite genetics, microbiota, as well as environmental factors, it seems that further studies are needed to find out different markers of host susceptibility to diverse parasite genotypes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome or urticaria.

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Iranian Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 22516085, eISSN: 22516093, Pages: 351-359, Published: February 2020

  • The prevalence of atypical pneumonia caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae (P1 gene) in patients with respiratory infections by culture and molecular PCR methods in Tehran, Iran
    Zahra Babaei, Iman Pouladi, Abbass Ashtari, Gasem Azimi, and Mohammad Niakan

    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, ISSN: 20083645, eISSN: 20084161, Published: 2020 Kowsar Medical Institute
    Background: Atypical pneumonia is an upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumonia by culture and molecular PCR methods in Tehran. Methods: In the present study, 102 samples of throat swab were collected from patients with respiratory infections. All samples were cultured in liquid PPLO Broth And solid PPLO agar media (1% glucose and 20% horse serum). The PCR technique with specific primers was implemented after culture and genome extraction through phenol-chloroform technique. Results: In this study, 27 (26.47%) colonies of Mycoplasma were isolated on PPLO agar medium. Using specific primers, it was found that 33 samples (32.4%) were positive in terms of Mycoplasma genus and 14 samples (13.7%) were positive for the presence of M. pneumonia. Conclusions: Mycoplasma pneumonia is a pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Molecular PCR method is a quick and sensitive technique that has higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. The obtained results may contribute to the specific treatment of some patients with symptoms of respiratory infections.

  • Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of hydatid cysts isolated from livestock in Bushehr province, Iran
    Zahra Babaei, Reza Taherkhani, Afshin Barazesh, Marzieh Taherzadeh, Soleiman Khorami, and Moradali Fouladvand

    Journal of Parasitic Diseases, ISSN: 09717196, eISSN: 09750703, Published: 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Hydatid cyst is one of the parasitic zoonoses caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. The spread of this parasite is global and is of great importance in terms of public health. To date, ten different species of this parasite have been identified that differ in characteristics such as life cycle, epidemiology and pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the genotype and phylogenetic relationship of hydatid cysts isolated from livestock of Bushehr province, Iran. About 62 samples of hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts were collected from slaughtered animals. DNA extracted by phenol–chloroform method was amplified by PCR using primers specific for the cox1 gene. The PCR products of 50 samples were sequenced and analyzed using BioEdit software and compared with sequences in the GenBank. The phylogenetic tree was drawn using Neighbor Joining tree-NJ method, and its reliability was evaluated. Sequencing results showed that out of 50 sequenced samples, 43 samples had the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus and 7 samples had the genotype of Taenia hydatigena. By drawing a phylogenetic tree, all 43 hydatid cyst samples belonged to G1 strain. The predominance of G1 strain of hydatid cyst in livestock of Bushehr province shows the main role of this genotype in establishing the life cycle of parasite in this region and if the genotype of the parasite in dogs and humans is determined, then these findings can be used to disrupt the life cycle of the parasite and reduce the human infections.

  • The Effect of Naja naja oxiana Snake Venom Against Leishmania tropica Confirmed by Advanced Assays
    Iraj Sharifi, Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Saeideh Nikpour, Mahshid Mostafavi, Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Fatemeh Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Elham Jafari, Ehsan Salarkia, and Delavar Shahbazzadeh

    Acta Parasitologica, ISSN: 12302821, eISSN: 18961851, Published: 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to explore the activity of Naja naja oxiana venom on Leishmania tropica and its modes of action. METHODS Different fractions of Naja naja oxiana venom (NNOV) were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. The superior component, fraction k (FK) was selected. The activity of the fraction was assessed using advanced assays. RESULTS Interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α and iNOS gene expression as the indicators of Th1 significantly increased. In contrast, the level of IL-10, as the marker of T helper 2 substantially decreased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) after treatment with different concentrations of NNOV-FK, unlike arginase (L-ARG) activity which showed a significant reduction (p < 0.001). The NNOV-FK showed significant lethal activity on the L. tropica stages. CONCLUSION The findings demonstrated that NNOV-FK represented a strong leishmanicidal activity on L. tropica stages. The major modes of NNOV-FK action are multidimensional, which perceives the induction of a synergistic response and upregulation of the immune-modulatory role towards Th1 response against L. tropica stages as well as apoptotic and anti-metabolic action as a model drug to generate ROS, block the polyamine synthesis and lead to parasite death.

  • Anti-leishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of epigallocatechin 3-o-gallate on leishmania tropica: Apoptosis and gene expression profiling

    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, eISSN: 2008238X, Pages: 521-533, Published: October-December 2019 Knowledge E
    Background: Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), are the first-line treatment against leishmaniasis, but at present, they have basically lost their efficacy. This study was aimed to explore epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), alone or in combination with MA against Leishmania tropica stages.&#x0D; Methods: All experiments were carried out in triplicate using colorimetric assay, macrophage model, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. This experimental study was carried out in 2017 in Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.&#x0D; Results: Promastigotes and amastigotes were more susceptible to EGCG than MA alone, but the effect was more profound when used in combination. EGCG exhibited high antioxidant level with a remarkable potential to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, the results showed that the level of gene expression pertaining to Th-1 was significantly up-regulated (P&lt;0.001).&#x0D; Conclusion: EGCG demonstrated a potent anti-leishmanial effect alone and more enhanced lethal activity in combination. The principal mode of action entails the stimulation of a synergistic response and up-regulation of the immunomodulatory role towards Th-1 response against L. tropica.

  • Expansion of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis into rural areas of southeastern Iran: Clinical, epidemiological and phylogenetic profiles explored using 7SL high resolution melting-PCR analysis
    Seyed Zia Razavinasab, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Zahra Babaei, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Ehsan Salarkia, Fatemeh Sharifi, Abbas Aghaei Afshar, and Mehdi Bamorovat

    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN: 18651674, eISSN: 18651682, Pages: 1602-1610, Published: July 2019 Wiley
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has increased remarkably in Iran and has expanded into new areas. The present study aimed to assess the emerging CL outbreak in southeastern Iran using high resolution melting-polymerase chain reaction (HRM-PCR) and phylogenetic analysis using the 7SL RNA gene marker. A cross-sectional and analytical survey was conducted during a house-to-house census of 11,021 inhabitants in Narmashir County in southeastern Iran in 2016. The cases were detected by direct smear microscopic examination and sequencing and were characterized using the 7SL RNA gene. All age groups and sexes were equally affected. Most were single lesions (70.7%). The hands (55.2%) and face (37.9%) were the main sites of involvement. The disease was more common among illiterate persons. Sequencing and HRM-PCR revealed that Leishmania tropica (accession no. MH632168 Qale-Shahid) was the principal causative agent of anthroponotic CL (ACL) in new areas of expansion. This is the first emergence of ACL in rural areas of Narmashir County. Based on the molecular data, the causative parasite species confirmed to be L. tropica. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that a single clone of the organism derived from a single source has spread into the affected villages. Construction of a main road, population movement and recent urbanization in the area are likely the major factors associated with the establishment of this new outbreak. This study was essential to enable the planning of effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures to control the disease.

  • Transient knockdown of Nucleoside transporter 4 gene expression as a therapeutic target in Leishmania major by antisense RNA: In vitro and in vivo studies
    Zahra Babaei, Farideh Tohidi, Bahram Kazemi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Iraj Sharifi, MohammadReza Rabiei, and EbrahimSaedi Dezaki

    Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, ISSN: 09729062, Pages: 98-104, Published: June 2019 Medknow
    Background & objectives: Leishmania parasites cause various clinical symptoms in humans such as cutaneous ulcers and fatal visceral diseases. These parasites cannot synthesize purine rings de novo and must uptake purines from their hosts via salvage. Salvage is regulated by permeases in the cell membrane. There are hundreds of membrane transporter proteins to receive nutrients in Leishmania. Nucleoside transporter 4 (NT4) is one of the purine transporters that is involved in enhancing the uptake of adenine in Leishmania major. They are important new drug targets for the treatment of leishmaniasis because they can be used to transport toxic purine analogs to kill parasitic cells, thus preventing the progression of the infection. The present study was conducted to silence the NT4 nucleobase involved in the salvage pathway to interrupt purine nucleotide membrane transport in the cells of L. major. Methods: In this study, a 502 bp segment of NT4 gene sequence was selected and designed as antisense transcripts after insertion in the parasite. The NT4 construct was transfected into L. major promastigotes for in vitro study of gene expression. Then, BALB/c mice infected with transgenic Leishmania and wild-type strain along with the number and size of lesions were studied in vivo. Results: The study showed that relative expression of NT4 gene in mutant Leishmania was lower than in the control on Day 3 to 20. The percentages and the number of amastigotes in infected macrophages with wild-type strain L. major were more than infected macrophages with mutant parasites. Infected BALB/c mice with transgenic Leish- mania showed a lower number and size of lesions than the BALB/c mice infected with wild-type strain. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the use of antisense RNA reduced NT4 gene expression in L. major. Further, studies are needed to ascertain that the use of antisense can be considered as a new treatment for leishmaniasis.

  • Associated-risk determinants for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate: A cohort study in Iran
    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Iraj Sharifi, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Mehdi Bamorovat, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Ehsan Salarkia, Abbas Aghaei Afshar, Hamid Sharifi, Fatemeh Sharifi, Ahmad Khosravi, Mehrdad Khatami, Nasir Arefinia, Alireza Fekri, Saeideh Farajzadeh, Ali Khamesipour, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, and Rajender S. Varma

    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN: 19352727, eISSN: 19352735, Published: June 2019 Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Background The control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is facilitated by knowledge of factors associated with the treatment failures in endemic countries. The aim of this evaluation was to identify the potential risk determinants which might affect the significance of demographic and clinical characteristics for the patients with anthroponotic CL (ACL) and the outcome of meglumine antimoniate (MA) (Glucantime) treatment. Methodology/Principal findings This current was executed as a cohort spanning over a period of 5 years which centered in southeastern part of Iran. Altogether, 2,422 participants were evaluated and 1,391 eligible volunteer patients with ACL caused by Leishmania tropica were included. Overall, 1,116 (80.2%) patients received MA intraleisionally (IL), once a week for 12 weeks along with biweekly cryotherapy, while 275 (19.8%) patients received MA alone (20 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) (intramuscular, IM). The treatment failure rate in ACL patients was 11% using IL combined with cryotherapy plus IM alone, whilst 9% and 18.5% by IL along with cryotherapy or IM alone, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model predicted 5 major associated-risk determinants including male (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.079–2.22, p = 0.018), lesion on face (OR = 1.574, CI = 1.075–2.303, p = 0.02), multiple lesions (OR = 1.446, CI = 1.008–2.075, p = 0.045), poor treatment adherence (OR = 2.041, CI = 1.204–3.46, p = 0.008) and disease duration > 4 months (OR = 2.739, CI = 1.906–3.936, p≤0.001). Conclusions/Significance The present study is the original and largest cohort of ACL patients who treated with MA. A comprehensive intervention and coordinated action by the health authorities and policy-makers are crucial to make sure that patients strictly follow medical instructions. Early detection and effective therapy < 4 months following the onset of the lesion is critical for successful treatment of the patients. Since a significant number of patients are still refractory to MA, reducing man-vector exposure and development of new effective alternative drugs are essential measures against ACL due to L. tropica.

  • Genetic and morphometric categorization of Taenia ovis from Sheep in Iran
    Sima Rostami, Reza Salavati, Robin N. Beech, Zahra Babaei, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Saeedeh Shamsaddini, Saeid Nasibi, and Majid Fasihi Harandi

    Parasitology, ISSN: 00311820, eISSN: 14698161, Volume: 146, Pages: 563-568, Published: 1 April 2019 Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    AbstractLittle is known about the genetic and morphological characters ofTaenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates ofT. ovisusing rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Ninety sheep specimens ofCysticercus oviswere collected from 18 slaughterhouses in Iran. The mean ±s.d.for total length of large and small hooks were 174.1 ± 6.4 and 116.7 ± 5.4µm, respectively. CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence analysis showed 11 and nine haplotypes, respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variations between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were 0.3–1.1 and 0.2–1.0%, respectively. Level of nucleotide variation in CO1 and 12S rRNA betweenT. ovishaplotypes from present study and eight otherTaeniaspecies was found to be 11.3–17.8 and 5.3–16.3%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered allT. ovisisolates into a single clade comprised of the all CO1 and 12S rRNA haplotypes. CO1 nucleotide difference betweenT. ovis ovisandT. asiaticawas 13.6% that is lesser than the corresponding difference betweenT. ovis ovisandT. ovis krabbei, warranting the designation of two separate species asT. ovisandT. krabbei. Interclass correlation coefficients showed that there was no significant association between rostellar hook length variation and the variability of the mitochondrial genes.

  • Transient down-regulation of nucleoside transporter 3 gene expression as a drug target in leishmania major using antisense RNA technology
    Farideh TOHIDI, Bahram KAZEMI, Mojgan BANDEHPOUR, Iraj SHARIFI, Mohammad Reza RABIEI, Ebrahim SAEDI DEZAKI, and Zahra BABAEI

    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, eISSN: 2008238X, Pages: 111-119, Published: January-March 2019 Knowledge E
    Background: This study was aimed to silencing the Nucleoside transporter 3 (NT3) permease nucleobases involved in the salvage pathway of Leishmania in order to disrupt purine nucleotide uptake in the parasite and consequently, destruction of the parasite.&#x0D; Methods: Overall, 502 bp fragment of the NT3 gene sequence was designed to produce an antisense transcript upon entry of the vector into the parasite. The NT3 construct was transfected into L. major promastigotes and NT3 gene expression was studied in vivo and in vitro conditions.&#x0D; Results: Relative expression NT3 gene in transgenic Leishmania was decreased in tenth day. The percentages and the number of amastigotes infected macrophages with transgenic L. major were less than infected macrophages with wild-type strain. Our results in two groups of BALB/c female mice (wild-type strain and mutant, n=4 each group) were showed that size and number of ulcers in BALB/c mice infected with transgenic Leishmania promastigotes were less than the BALB/c mice infected with wild-type parasites.&#x0D; Conclusion: The results indicate the use of antisense RNA reduces of NT3 gene expression in L. major. More studies are required to obtain a new approach for treating Leishmania infection.

  • Corrigendum: Genetic and morphometric categorization of Taenia ovis from Sheep in Iran (Journal of Physical Chemistry (2019) DOI: 10.1017/S0031182018001907)
    Sima Rostami, Reza Salavati, Robin N. Beech, Zahra Babaei, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Saeedeh Shamsaddini, Saeid Nasibi, and Majid Fasihi Harandi

    Parasitology, ISSN: 00311820, eISSN: 14698161, Published: 2019 Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Differential expression of TLRs 2, 4, 9, iNOS and TNF-α and arginase activity in peripheral blood monocytes from glucantime unresponsive and responsive patients with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica
    Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Iraj Sharifi, Ali Afgar, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Mehdi Bamorovat, Hamid Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Amir Keyhani, Alireza Keyhani, Leili Abedi, and Fatemeh Sharifi

    Microbial Pathogenesis, ISSN: 08824010, eISSN: 10961208, Volume: 126, Pages: 368-378, Published: January 2019 Elsevier BV
    BACKGROUND Detection of the mechanism of host/parasite interactions in unresponsive forms of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica is helpful for immunotherapy and vaccine development. In the present study, the gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), TNF-α, iNOS and also arginase (ARG) activity in monocytes from Glucantime unresponsive in comparison to responsive patients infected with L. tropica was investigated. METHODS In this case-control study, patients with unresponsive (n = 10) and responsive (n = 10) ACL were recruited. Gene expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, TNF-α and iNOS was analyzed in L. tropica-exposed monocytes. The level of ARG activity in both isolated promastigotes and the lysates of monocytes was also determined. RESULTS L. tropica-exposed monocytes represented higher expression of all three TLRs and TNF-α and lower expression of iNOS compared to unexposed ones in both groups of patients. Results revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR2 and TNF-α and up-regulation of TLR9 expression in unresponsive isolates in comparison to responsive ones. Besides, ARG level showed a significant increase in L. tropica-stimulated monocytes and cultured promastigotes from unresponsive isolates versus responsive ones. CONCLUSIONS The decreased TLR2, TLR4, TNF-α and iNOS and the increased level of TLR9 expression in L. tropica-exposed monocytes from unresponsive isolates and also the increment in ARG activity in their promastigotes and monocytes, might possibly be involved in the severity of the disease and leading to Glucantime unresponsiveness.

  • A newly emerged focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in South-western Iran
    A. Askari, I. Sharifi, M.R. Aflatoonian, Z. Babaei, P. Ghasemi Nejad Almani, M.A. Mohammadi, H. Alizadeh, S. Hemati, and M. Bamorovat

    Microbial Pathogenesis, ISSN: 08824010, eISSN: 10961208, Volume: 121, Pages: 363-368, Published: August 2018 Elsevier BV
    Leishmaniasis is rising in many countries, including Iran, due to climate change, refugee crises, urbanization and etc. The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiology, extent and identity of Leishmania species in a newly emerged focus in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, South-western Iran. This study was performed as a descriptive cross-sectional study by a systematic house-to-house approach. The Leishmania species was identified by RFLP-PCR and sequencing. Altogether, 46799 individuals consisting of 22907 (48.9) female and 23892 (51.1%) male were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of skin lesions. Overall, the incidence rate was 0.34% (n = 160). All age groups were affected and the incidence rate was the highest in <10 years of age group (0.49%) and the lowest in >50 years old individuals (0.15%), although there was no significant difference regarding the sex and age. The majority of patients had one lesion (47.5%) on hands (56%) and most of the cases occurred in Abdanan city (%54) in summer. Based on the RFLP-PCR analysis, all the Leishmania isolates were L. major of single genotype. A newly emerged focus of zoonotic CL caused by L. major occurred in South-western of Iran. Multiple risk factors created this epidemic area. Further studies on the vector and reservoir are crucial needed to provide evidences to select the prophylactic and therapeutic measures for future control strategies.

  • Geographical distribution and molecular characterization for cutaneous leishmaniasis species by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of kDNA and ITS1 loci markers in south-eastern Iran
    Maryam Ramezany, Iraj Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Alireza Keyhani, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Fatemeh Sharifi, and Mehdi Bamorovat

    Pathogens and Global Health, ISSN: 20477724, eISSN: 20477732, Volume: 112, Pages: 132-141, Published: 3 April 2018 Informa UK Limited
    Abstract This study aimed to explore geographic distribution and molecular characterization of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species by amplifying two popular markers in kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 loci by nested-PCR, and characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Findings demonstrated that two species co-existed in the province: L. tropica (88.5%) and L. major (11.5%). All gender and age groups were equally infected, although males, 21–30 years old, exhibited a significantly higher infection. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of 34 randomly selected samples showed that L. tropica isolates exhibited some degree of heterogeneity. Both anthroponotic CL and zoonotic CL are present in south-eastern Iran with predominance of L. tropica species. Some level of heterogeneity was observed in L. tropica isolates which possibly reflects different colonies in the area. Implementation of diagnostic tools directly from clinical samples could be an important strategic approach for exploration of spatial distribution, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses.

  • Stool antigen immunodetection for diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis infection in human subjects with HIV and cancer
    Maryam Nooshadokht, Behjat Kalantari-Khandani, Iraj Sharifi, Hossein Kamyabi, Namal P.M. Liyanage, Laurel A. Lagenaur, Martin F. Kagnoff, Steven M. Singer, Zahra Babaei, and Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi

    Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN: 01677012, eISSN: 18728359, Volume: 141, Pages: 35-41, Published: October 2017 Elsevier BV
    Human infection with the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis is one the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. Higher incidence rates of giardiasis have been reported from human subjects with multiple debilitating chronic conditions, including hypogammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In the current study, stool specimens were collected from 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV or cancer and immunocompetent subjects. The sensitivity of microscopy-based detection on fresh stool preparations, trichrome staining and stool antigen immunodetection for the diagnosis of G. duodenalis were 36%, 45.5% and 100%, respectively when compared with a highly sensitive stool-based PCR method as the gold standard. Further multilocus molecular analyses using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) loci demonstrated that the AI genotype of G. duodenalis was the most prevalent, followed by the AII genotype and mixed (AI+B) infections. We concluded that stool antigen immunodetection-based immunoassays and stool-based PCR amplification had comparable sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of G. duodenalis infections in these populations. Stool antigen detection-based diagnostic modalities are rapid and accurate and may offer alternatives to conventional microscopy and PCR-based diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of G. duodenalis in human subjects living with HIV or cancer.

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, Pages: 251-259, Published: 2017

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Tropical Biomedicine, ISSN: 01275720, Pages: 681-690, Published: 2017

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, Pages: 1-11, Published: 2017

  • Adaptive immune response in symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric protozoal infection: evidence for a determining role of parasite genetic heterogeneity in host immunity to human giardiasis
    Zahra Babaei, Najmeh Malihi, Naser Zia-Ali, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad A. Mohammadi, Martin F. Kagnoff, Lars Eckmann, Steven M. Singer, and Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi

    Microbes and Infection, ISSN: 12864579, eISSN: 1769714X, Pages: 687-695, Published: 1 November 2016 Elsevier BV
    The genetic basis of the ultimate clinical outcomes of human giardiasis has been the subject of numerous investigations. We previously demonstrated roles for both host and parasite factors in determining the outcome of enteric infection in a murine model of Giardia duodenalis infection. In the current study, fecal and serum specimens from healthy controls and human subjects infected with the intestinal parasite G. duodenalis were assessed. Using a semi-nested PCR method, clinical isolates were genetically characterized based on the gdh and tpi loci, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed. Using a sandwich ELISA method, the serum levels of representative TH1 and TH2 cytokines were measured in infected human subjects and healthy controls. Here we showed that symptomatic human giardiasis was characterized by significantly elevated serum levels of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ compared to healthy controls, whereas asymptomatic human subjects and healthy controls had comparable levels of serum IFN-γ. Further analyses showed that human subjects infected with G. duodenalis genotype AI had significantly elevated levels of serum IFN-γ and IL-10, but not IL-5, whereas human subjects infected with AII had similar levels of those cytokines compared to healthy controls. These data demonstrate roles for both host and parasite factors in the determination of the outcome of enteric infections and may further broaden our understanding of host-parasite interaction during enteric protozoal infections.

  • The role of GlcNAc-PI-de-N-acetylase gene by gene knockout through homologous recombination and its consequences on survival, growth and infectivity of Leishmania major in in vitro and in vivo conditions
    Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Iraj Sharifi, Bahram Kazemi, Zahra Babaei, Mojgan Bandehpour, Samira Salari, Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki, Farideh Tohidi, and Mohammad Ali Mohammadi

    Acta Tropica, ISSN: 0001706X, eISSN: 18736254, Volume: 154, Pages: 63-72, Published: February 01, 2016 Elsevier BV
    At present, there are no efficacious vaccines or effective drugs against leishmaniasis; therefore new and innovative control methods are urgently required. One way to achieve this important goal is through using reverse genetic engineering to evaluate important enzymes, proteins and macromolecules. One of the most important enzymes for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthetic pathways is GlcNAc-PI-de-N-acetylase (GPI12). The molecular constructs were cloned in Escherichia coli strain Top 10 and confirmed by molecular methods and were transfected by electroporation into Leishmania major. We demonstrated that two alleles of the GPI12 gene in L. major were successfully removed and enabling the generation of a null mutant, which supports the idea that GPI12 is not an essential gene for the growth and survival of Leishmania and the homozygous knockouts of Leishmania are able to survive. We were able to produce a mutant parasite that caused no damaged to the host. Further investigations are essential to check the safety profile in laboratory animals.

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, Pages: 290-295, Published: 2016

  • Software design for social profile matching algorithm to create ad-hoc social network on top of Android
    Iranian Journal of Parasitology, ISSN: 17357020, Pages: 448-462, Published: 2016


  • The Fraction of the Snake Venom, its Leishmanicidal Effect, and the Stim-ulation of an Anti-Leishmania Response in Infected Macrophages.
    S Nikpour, F Tabatabaie, I Sharifi, M Mostafavi, RT Oliaee, F Sharifi, ...
    Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets 2020

  • The Effect of Naja naja oxiana Snake Venom Against Leishmania tropica Confirmed by Advanced Assays
    I Sharifi, F Tabatabaie, S Nikpour, M Mostafavi, RT Oliaee, F Sharifi, ...
    Acta Parasitologica, 1-12 2020

  • Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of hydatid cysts isolated from livestock in Bushehr province, Iran
    Z Babaei, R Taherkhani, A Barazesh, M Taherzadeh, S Khorami, ...
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 1-7 2020

  • Sulfonated CMK-3: an effective catalyst for the glucose conversion to butyl levulinate as the fuel additive
    Z Babaei, RY Esmaeilabad, N Orash, AN Chermahini
    Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-11 2020

  • The potential role of nicotinamide on Leishmania tropica: An assessment of inhibitory effect, cytokines gene expression and arginase profiling
    RT Oliaee, I Sharifi, M Bamorovat, A Keyhani, Z Babaei, E Salarkia, ...
    International Immunopharmacology 86, 106704 2020

  • Development of Communicative Functions in Normal Persian-speaking Children from 12 to 18 Months of Age: A Longitudinal Study
    Z Babaei, T Zarifian, A Ashtari, E Bakhshi
    Archives of Rehabilitation 21 (2), 220-235 2020

  • Isolation and determination of antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens in patients who referred to Pol-e Dokhtar medical centers during 2016-2018
    Z Babaei, N Bahrami, A Kamali, I Pouladi
    Journal of Basic and Clinical Pathophysiology 8 (1), 16-20 2020

  • Detection and Identification of Naegleria australiensis from Swimming pools in Kerman province
    K Solhjoo, R Eftekhari-Kenzerki, Z Babaei, H Rezanezhad, A Abolghazi
    Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 18 (2), 0-0 2020

  • Glycerol adsorption and mechanism of dehydration to acrolein over TiO2 surface: A density functional theory study
    Z Babaei, AN Chermahini, M Dinari
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 563, 1-7 2020

  • In situ synthesis of gold/silver nanoparticles and polyaniline as buffer layer in polymer solar cells
    Z Babaei, B Rezaei, MK Pisheh, F Afshar-Taromi
    Materials Chemistry and Physics, 122879 2020

  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in patients infected with Leishmania tropica: a case control study
    H Shabandoust, I Sharifi, O Raiesi, MI Getso, ED Saedi, A Afgar, ...
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases 44 (1), 40-48 2020

  • Prevalence and Associated-Factors for Entamoeba gingivalis in Adolescents in Southeastern Iran by Culture and PCR, 2017
    M Sharifi, F Jahanimoghadam, Z Babaei, MA Mohammadi, F Sharifi, ...
    Iranian Journal of Public Health 49 (2), 351 2020

  • The Prevalence of Atypical Pneumonia Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (P1 gene) in Patients with Respiratory Infections by Culture and Molecular PCR
    Z Babaei, I Pouladi, A Ashtari, G Azimi, M Niakan
    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 12 (11) 2019

  • Prevalence and molecular subtyping of Blastocystis from patients with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic urticaria in Iran
    G Shirvani, M Fasihi-Harandi, O Raiesi, N Bazargan, MJ Zahedi, I Sharifi, ...
    Acta Parasitologica, 1-7 2019

  • Clinical and laboratory evaluation of cured and non-cured patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated by Glucantime
    F Ezatkhah, I Sharifi, Z Babaei, MR Baneshi, F Zolala, A Kermanizadeh, ...
    Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 56 (4), 351 2019

  • Anti-Leishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate on Leishmania tropica: Apoptosis and Gene Expression Profiling
    M Saduqi, I Sharifi, Z Babaei, A Keyhani, M Mostafavi, MH PARIZI, ...
    Iranian Journal of Parasitology 14 (4), 521 2019

  • Emerging Epidemics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran: Operational Aspects, Management and Implemented Control Approaches
    I Sharifi, MR Aflatoonian, Z Babaei, F Sharifi, A Keyhani, E Salarkia, ...
    Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 7 (3), 52-60 2019

  • Expansion of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis into rural areas of southeastern Iran: Clinical, epidemiological and phylogenetic profiles explored using 7SL high resolution melting
    SZ Razavinasab, I Sharifi, MR Aflatoonian, Z Babaei, MA Mohammadi, ...
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 66 (4), 1602-1610 2019

  • Associated-risk determinants for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate: A cohort study in Iran
    MR Aflatoonian, I Sharifi, B Aflatoonian, M Bamorovat, A Heshmatkhah, ...
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 13 (6), e0007423 2019

  • Transient knockdown of Nucleoside transporter 4 gene expression as a therapeutic target in Leishmania major by antisense RNA: In vitro and in vivo studies
    F Tohidi, Z Babaei, B Kazemi, M Bandehpour, I Sharifi, MR Rabiei, ...
    Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 2019


  • Protein nanoparticle: a unique system as drug delivery vehicles
    M Jahanshahi, Z Babaei
    African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (25) 2008
    Citations: 325

  • Fabrication and characterization of non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on ternary NiO/CuO/polyaniline nanocomposite
    K Ghanbari, Z Babaei
    Analytical Biochemistry 498, 37-46 2016
    Citations: 116

  • Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran
    S Solaymani-Mohammadi, M Rezaian, Z Babaei, A Rajabpour, ...
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44 (6), 2258-2261 2006
    Citations: 82

  • Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran
    S Solaymani-Mohammadi, M Rezaian, H Hooshyar, GR Mowlavi, ...
    Journal of wildlife diseases 40 (4), 801-803 2004
    Citations: 81

  • Isolation of free-living amoebae from sarein hot springs in ardebil province, iran
    A Badirzadeh, M Niyyati, Z Babaei, H Amini, H Badirzadeh, M Rezaeian
    Iranian journal of parasitology 6 (2), 1 2011
    Citations: 74

  • Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results
    Z Babaei, H Oormazdi, S Rezaie, M Rezaeian, E Razmjou
    Experimental parasitology 128 (2), 159-162 2011
    Citations: 65

  • Molecular characterization of the Iranian isolates of Giardia lamblia: application of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene
    Z Babaei, H OURMAZDI, L Akhlaghi, S REZAEI, E Razmjou, ...
    Citations: 59

  • Genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a large number of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of human isolates in Iran
    S Rostami, SS Torbaghan, S Dabiri, Z Babaei, MA Mohammadi, ...
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 92 (3), 588-594 2015
    Citations: 47

  • Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis using parasitological methods in Tehran
    Citations: 45

  • Optimization of parameters for the fabrication of gelatin nanoparticles by the Taguchi robust design method
    M Jahanshahi, MH Sanati, Z Babaei
    Journal of Applied Statistics 35 (12), 1345-1353 2008
    Citations: 45

  • Gelatin nanoparticle fabrication and optimization of the particle size
    M Jahanshahi, MH Sanati, S Hajizadeh, Z Babaei
    physica status solidi (a) 205 (12), 2898-2902 2008
    Citations: 42

  • Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil against acute toxoplasmosis in mice model
    AT Kareshk, A Keyhani, H Mahmoudvand, RT Oliaei, A Asadi, ...
    Iranian journal of parasitology 10 (4), 625 2015
    Citations: 37

  • Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S ribosomal RNA characterization of Coenurus cerebralis from sheep in Iran
    S Rostami, R Salavati, RN Beech, M Sharbatkhori, Z Babaei, S Saedi, ...
    Veterinary Parasitology 197 (1-2), 141-151 2013
    Citations: 29

  • High resolution melting technique for molecular epidemiological studies of cystic echinococcosis: differentiating G1, G3, and G6 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato
    S Rostami, S Talebi, Z Babaei, M Sharbatkhori, N Ziaali, H Rostami, ...
    Parasitology research 112 (10), 3441-3447 2013
    Citations: 29

  • Seroprevalence of human hydatidosis using ELISA method in Qom province, central Iran
    A Rakhshanpour, MF Harandi, SS Moazezi, MT Rahimi, M Mohebali, ...
    Iranian journal of parasitology 7 (3), 10 2012
    Citations: 29

  • Identification of genotypes of Giardia duodenalis human isolates in Isfahan, Iran, using polymerase chain reaction–Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism
    N Pestehchian, H Rasekh, Z Babaei, HA Yousefi, AA Eskandarian, ...
    Advanced biomedical research 1 2012
    Citations: 25

  • The correlation between clinical signs and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolated from patients with giardiasis in Kerman city
    S Etemadi, N Ziyaali, Z Babaei, M Fasihi, A Ziyaali, Z Salari, H Kamyabi
    Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 18 (4), 330-339 2011
    Citations: 25

  • Pathogenic assays of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T4 genotype
    H Mirjalali, M Niyyati, H Abedkhojasteh, Z Babaei, M Sharifdini, ...
    Iranian journal of parasitology 8 (4), 530 2013
    Citations: 24

  • Enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar-Abbas, southern Iran: comparison of past and present situation
    AB Kuzehkanani, S Rezaei, Z Babaei, M Niyyati, SN Hashemi, ...
    Iranian journal of public health 40 (1), 80 2011
    Citations: 24

  • A sensitive and specific PCR based method for identification of Cryptosporidium Sp. using new primers from 18S ribosomal RNA
    AB Kuzehkanan, M Rezaeian, H Zeraati, M Mohebali, AR Meamar, ...
    Iranian journal of parasitology 6 (4), 1 2011
    Citations: 23