Department of Medical instrumentation Techniques Engineering Faculty Member / Quality assurance unit
Al Rafidain University College
Aqeel Mahmood Jawad received his B.Sc. in Computer and Communication Eng. from Al-Rafidain University College, Iraq in 2009, his MSc. in Electrical Eng. Universiti Tenaga nasional (UNITEN), Malaysia., 2014. He is received his Ph.D. degree with the Department of Electrical, Electronics and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environments, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia., 2021. He is with the Department of Computer Communication Engineering, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad-Iraq, as a Lecturer, and a head of communication lab. His research interests include, wireless communications, transmutation line and digital communication, satellite communications theory, energy-efficient wireless power transfer, WPT charging applications based on Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) techniques, advanced mathematics and wireless sensor networks applications.
Bachelor: Computer an Communication Engineer
Master: Electrical Engineering
PhD: Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering
Wireless: WPT, WSN, UAV Applications
Aymen Dheyaa Khaleel, Osman Ghazali, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Ayman Mohammed Ibrahim, Massudi Mahmuddin, Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi, and Mohammed Najah Mahdi Al-Niamey Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science
This research study presents a cube dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with four different radiation patterns for internet of things (IoT) applications. The various radiation patterns are determined by the grounded capacitor loading to reduce interference. The DRA is constructed of ceramic material with a dielectric constant of 30 and is fed via a coaxial probe located in the antenna’s center. Capacitors are used to load the four parasitic microstrip feed lines. Each pattern of radiation is adjustable by adjusting the capacitors loading on the feed line. The proposed antenna works at 3.5 GHz with -10 narrow impedance bandwidth of 74 MHz.
Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Haider Mahmood Jawad, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Asma’ Abu-Samah, Mahmood Jawad Abu-Alshaeer, and Nor Fadzilah Abdullah MDPI AG
Recent major advancements in drone charging station design are related to the differences in coil design between the material (copper or aluminum) and inner thickness (diameter design) to address power transfer optimization and increased efficiency. The designs are normally challenged with reduced weight on the drone’s side, which can lead to reduced payload or misalignment position issues between receiver and transmitter, limiting the performance of wireless charging. In this work, the coil combination was tested in vertical alignment from 2 cm to 50 cm, and in lateral misalignment positions that were stretched across 2, 5, 8, 10, and 15 cm ranges. Simulated and experimental results demonstrated improved transfer distances when the drone battery load was 100 Ω. With the proposed design, the vertical transfer power that was achieved was 21.12 W, 0.460 A, with 81.5% transfer efficiency, while the maximum lateral misalignment air gap that was achieved was 2 cm with 19.22 W and 74.15% efficiency. This study provides evidence that the developed circuit that is based on magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) is an effective technique towards improving power transfer efficiency across different remote and unmanned Internet of Things (IoT) applications, including drones for radiation monitoring and smart agriculture.
Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Nameer Hashim Qasim, and Volodymyr Pyliavskyi IEEE
The paper deals with the issues of metamerism in multimedia and telecommunication paths. Attention is focused on the end devices of the end-to-end path. A comparison is made in the assessments using traditional coordinate systems for representing colors, and in the coordinates of modern color models CAM16, CAM20u, ZCAM. Numerical differences in the obtained data are shown under the same input conditions. Statistical data of metamer estimates using Mac Adam ellipses are presented. A study was conducted in the work, showing that the spectral compositions of colors can be perceived as one color (based on McAdam's data), but when processed, their number can be different. Based on research, we can say that the differences can reach to 15%. When processing ZCAM models, the number of colors taken into account during transmission will be greater, which makes it possible to reduce the degree of influence of metamerism on color reproduction.
Nameer Hashim Qasim, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad Abu-Alshaeer, Haidar Mahmood Jawad, Yurii Khlaponin, and Oleksandr Nikitchyn Private Company Technology Center
UAVs or drones as an alternative solution to providing high-quality Internet service in difficult terrain are environmentally friendly and do not consume electricity during the day as is the case with communication towers. But the developers of the network face difficulties in the drone communication system associated with the need to take into consideration unpredictable weather conditions and terrain, as well as the short life of the drone's batteries. Therefore, the object of this study is the process of managing UAV traffic through the use of gNB-IoT in 5G. The possibility of using a mobile UAV repeater during traffic management using radio resources (RR), radio access network (RAN), the infrastructure with broadcasting tools and dynamic connection using MU-MIMO modulation is shown. The use of these tools makes it possible to connect the drone to the wired base network from the provider and then restore the radio frequency signal and broadcast to another coverage area where this subscriber does not have network coverage, use the channel quality indicator (CQI) representation as a QoE function. Undoubtedly, traffic management is the process of obtaining information about traffic control from one endpoint to another, which confirms the reliability and management of data transmission. Meanwhile, drone traffic management can be used to reduce time delays and remove network interference by relying on Internet of Things programs that use NB-5G technology. The UAV's traffic management improvement process uses a proposed algorithm to generate dynamic flow data management to enhance traffic processing of flow control in the IoT
Barbaros Preveze, Ahmed Alkhayyat, Firas Abedi, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, and Ali S. Abosinnee Hindawi Limited
In the last decent, the number of Internet of Things (IoT) health-based paradigm reached to a huge number of users, services, and applications across different disciplines. Thus, hundreds of wireless devices seem to be distrusted over a limited or small area. To provide a more efficient network, the software-defined network (SDN) thought to be a good candidate to deal with these huge number of wireless users. In this work, after a novel SDN algorithm is proposed for the hospital environment, it is also designed and integrated into an Internet of Health Things (IoHT) paradigm. The novel algorithm called adaptive switching (AS) is proposed as a novel adaptive access strategy based on adaptively hoping among existing Go-Back-N and Selective Repeat techniques. Finally, the throughput performance of the proposed AS method is compared with the performances of traditional Go-Back-N and Selective Repeat ARQ methods using the developed MATLAB simulation. For this, an optimal P error rate that the network should prefer to switch either from Go-Back-N to Selective Repeat or from Selective Repeat to Go-Back-N method to maximize the network throughput performance is determined. The evaluated results are also confirmed by theoretical calculation results using well-known Mathis throughput formula. It is observed from the simulation results that the best throughput performance can be evaluated, when AS switches to Go-Back-N if the P error is less than 3.5% and it switches back to Selective Repeat when the P error is greater than 3.5%. By this way, it is also observed that the throughput always has its best possible results for all P error rates and up to 37.52% throughput improvement is provided by the use of novel proposed adaptive switching (AS) algorithm.
Amer T. Abed, Aqeel M. Jawad, Haider M. Jawad, and Mahmood J. Abu-Alshaeer IEEE
This research presented a novel of (F-J) antenna, where the tapered feeding strip line fed a frame that loops back to the ground. Within this frame, branches forming the structures F and J. The antenna has measured wide impedance bandwidth of 3.4-30 GHz that can be used for many wireless communications such as WiMAX (3.4GHz–3.6GHz /5GHz– 6GHz), Wi-Fi (5GHz–5.8GHz), 5G (5-6 and 27-28 GHz), ultra wideband (UWB) (3.1–10.6 GHz), and multichannel video and data distribution service (MVDDS) (12.2–12.7 GHz). . The effect of varying the dimensions of some parameters and the surface current distribution had been investigated carefully in this research to optimize the dimensions of the proposed antenna. A good matching was observed between the measured and the simulated data for the reflection coefficient, the radiation patterns and the gain.
Amer T. Abed, Mandeep S. J. Singh, and Aqeel M. Jawad Cambridge University Press (CUP)
AbstractThis paper describes and analyzes a new technique used inQ-slot antenna to generate circular polarization (CP). The CP characteristics were investigated carefully by studying the surface current distribution, the phase difference between the left hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right hand circular polarization (RHCP) at some resonant frequencies, and the measured values of the axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW). Normal arms (E1andE2) were cut in the upper elliptical feeding strip line to form an open-mouth structure. The armsE1andE2were made equal in length and set perpendicular to each other to have normal electric fields, leading to the generation of CP radiation. A formula was modified for the dual resonant frequenciesf1,f2of the modesTM010andTM001. The measured values of the ARBW indicated that the antenna has a wide ARBW of 4.8–5.93 GHz, which is approximately 52% of the 3rd operating band of 4.7–6.8 GHz. The wide ARBW in a small size indicated that the design of theQ-slot antenna overcame the limits of designing antennas with wide ARBW in small size and low profile. A formula for normalized field was driven according to the complementary of theQ-slot antenna.
Haider Mahmood Jawad, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Nor Fadzilah Abdullah, Mahamod Ismail, and Mahmood Jawad Abu-AlShaeer Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received significant attention in the last few years in the agriculture field. Among the major challenges for sensor nodes’ deployment in agriculture is the path loss in the presence of dense grass or the height of trees. This results in degradation of communication link quality due to absorption, scattering, and attenuation through the crop’s foliage or trees. In this study, two new path-loss models were formulated based on the MATLAB curve-fitting tool for ZigBee WSN in a farm field. The path loss between the router node (mounted on a drone) and the coordinator node was modeled and derived based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in the farm field. Two path-loss models were formulated based on exponential (EXP) and polynomial (POLY) functions. Both functions were combined with PSO, namely, the hybrid EXP-PSO and POLY-PSO algorithms, to find the optimal coefficients of functions that would result in accurate path-loss models. The results show that the hybrid EXP-PSO and POLY-PSO models noticeably improved the coefficient of determination (R2) of the regression line, with the mean absolute error (MAE) found to be 1.6 and 2.7 dBm for EXP-PSO and POLY-PSO algorithms. The achieved R2 in this study outperformed the previous state-of-the-art models. An accurate path-loss model is essential for smart agriculture application to determine the behavior of the propagated signals and to deploy the nodes in the WSN in a position that ensures data communication without unnecessary packets’ loss between nodes.
Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Haider Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Nor Fadzilah Abdullah, and Mahmood Jawad Abu-Alshaeer Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Drones can be used in agriculture applications to monitor crop yield and climate conditions and to extend the communication range of wireless sensor networks in monitoring areas. However, monitoring the climate conditions in agriculture applications faces challenges and limitations, such as drone flight time, power consumption, and communication distance, which are addressed in this study. Wireless power transfer (WPT) can be used to charge drone batteries. WPT using a magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) technique was considered in this study because it allows high transfer power and efficiency with tens of centimeters, power transfers can be achieved in misalignment situations, charging several devices simultaneously, and unaffected by weather conditions. WPT was practically implemented based on a solar cell using a proposed flat spiral coil (FSC) in the transmitter circuit and multiturn coil (MTC) in a receiver circuit (drone) for the alignment and misalignment of two coils at different distances. FSC and MTC improved power transfer and efficiency to 20.46 W and 85.25%, respectively, at 0 cm with the loaded system under alignment condition. In addition, the two coils achieved appropriate transfer efficiencies and power for charging the drone battery under misaligned conditions. The maximum power transfer and efficiency were 17.1 W and 71% for the misalignment condition, at an air gap of 1 cm between two coils when the system was loaded with the drone battery. Moreover, the battery life of the drone was extended to 851 minutes based on the proposed sleep/active strategy relative to the traditional operation (i.e., 25.84 minutes). Consequently, a 96.9% battery power saving was achieved based on this strategy. Comparison results showed that the proposed system outperformed some present techniques in terms of the transfer power, transfer efficiency, and drone battery life. The proposed WPT technique developed in this study has been proven to solve the misalignment issue. Thus it offers a great opportunity as a key deployment component for the automation of farming practices toward the Internet of Farming applications.
Amer Tawfeeq Abed and Aqeel Mahmood Jawad Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
In this study, an Amer fractal slot antenna is proposed as a multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) antenna with four ports. The antenna is excited by CPW (coplanar waveguide) to control the leakage of electromagnetic energy, which leads to a high match between the antenna and input impedance, thus achieving dual operating bands of 1.5–19.2 GHz and 25–37.2 GHz for port 1, dual operating bands of 1.4–19 GHz and 20–35.5 GHz for port 2, a wide operating band of 1.4–29 GHz for port 3, and dual operating bands of 1.6–21 GHz and 22–37 GHz for port 4. Therefore, the proposed antenna meets all the market needs of wireless communication technologies such as 3G, Long Term Evolution (LTE, 2.6 GHz /3.5 GHz), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, 2.4 GHz/5 GHz), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX, 2.5 GHz/3.5 GHz/5 GHz), Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM, 2.4 GHz/ 5 GHz), and 5G (5–6 GHz and 27–28 GHz). The proposed antenna can be used as dual opposite ports for the frequency range 1.5–15 GHz and as four-element MIMO arrays for frequencies of 15–30 GHz. The MIMO fractal antenna has circular polarization characteristics with axial ratio bandwidths (ARBWs) of 4.7–5.8 GHz for port 1, 2.5–2.6 GHz and 5.4–6.5 GHz for the port 2, 4–5.9 GHz for port 3, and 5.5–10 GHz for port 4. Due to its compact size (33 mm $\\times33$ mm $\\times0.8$ mm), low profile, and acceptable values of gain and efficiency, the proposed antenna is suitable for many portable wireless communication devices.
Haider Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Gharghan, Aqeel Jawad, Mahamod Ismail, and Mahmood Abu-AlShaeer MDPI AG
The use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in modern precision agriculture to monitor climate conditions and to provide agriculturalists with a considerable amount of useful information is currently being widely considered. However, WSNs exhibit several limitations when deployed in real-world applications. One of the challenges faced by WSNs is prolonging the life of sensor nodes. This challenge is the primary motivation for this work, in which we aim to further minimize the energy consumption of a wireless agriculture system (WAS), which includes air temperature, air humidity, and soil moisture. Two power reduction schemes are proposed to decrease the power consumption of the sensor and router nodes. First, a sleep/wake scheme based on duty cycling is presented. Second, the sleep/wake scheme is merged with redundant data about soil moisture, thereby resulting in a new algorithm called sleep/wake on redundant data (SWORD). SWORD can minimize the power consumption and data communication of the sensor node. A 12 V/5 W solar cell is embedded into the WAS to sustain its operation. Results show that the power consumption of the sensor and router nodes is minimized and power savings are improved by the sleep/wake scheme. The power consumption of the sensor and router nodes is improved by 99.48% relative to that in traditional operation when the SWORD algorithm is applied. In addition, data communication in the SWORD algorithm is minimized by 86.45% relative to that in the sleep/wake scheme. The comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithms outperform power reduction techniques proposed in other studies. The average current consumptions of the sensor nodes in the sleep/wake scheme and the SWORD algorithm are 0.731 mA and 0.1 mA, respectively.
Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Rosdiadee Nordin, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Haider Mahmood Jawad, and Mahamod Ismail Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
When localizing wireless sensor networks, estimating the distances of sensor nodes according to the known locations of the anchor nodes remains a challenge. As nodes may transfer from one place to another, a localization technique that can measure or determine the location of a mobile node is necessary. In this paper, the distance between a bicycle when moves on the cycling track and a coordinator node (i.e., coach), which positioned on the middle of the cycling field was estimated for the indoor and outdoor velodromes. The distance was determined based on two methods. First, the raw estimate is done by using the log-normal shadowing model (LNSM) and later, the intelligence technique, based on adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is applied to improve the distance estimation accuracy, especially in an indoor environment, which the signal is severely dominated by the effect of wireless multipath impairments. The received signal strength indicator from anchor nodes based on ZigBee wireless protocol are employed as inputs to the ANFIS and LNSM. In addition, the parameters of the propagation channel, such as standard deviation and path loss exponent were measured. The results shown that the distance estimation accuracy was improved by 84% and 99% for indoor and outdoor velodromes, respectively, after applying the ANFIS optimization, relative to the rough estimate by the LNSM method. Moreover, the proposed ANFIS technique outperforms the previous studies in terms of errors of estimated distance with minimal mean absolute error of 0.023 m (outdoor velodrome) and 0.283 m (indoor velodrome).
Sadik Gharghan, Saleem Mohammed, Ali Al-Naji, Mahmood Abu-AlShaeer, Haider Jawad, Aqeel Jawad, and Javaan Chahl MDPI AG
Falls are the main source of injury for elderly patients with epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Elderly people who carry battery powered health monitoring systems can move unhindered from one place to another according to their activities, thus improving their quality of life. This paper aims to detect when an elderly individual falls and to provide accurate location of the incident while the individual is moving in indoor environments such as in houses, medical health care centers, and hospitals. Fall detection is accurately determined based on a proposed sensor-based fall detection algorithm, whereas the localization of the elderly person is determined based on an artificial neural network (ANN). In addition, the power consumption of the fall detection system (FDS) is minimized based on a data-driven algorithm. Results show that an elderly fall can be detected with accuracy levels of 100% and 92.5% for line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, respectively. In addition, elderly indoor localization error is improved with a mean absolute error of 0.0094 and 0.0454 m for LOS and NLOS, respectively, after the application of the ANN optimization technique. Moreover, the battery life of the FDS is improved relative to conventional implementation due to reduced computational effort. The proposed FDS outperforms existing systems in terms of fall detection accuracy, localization errors, and power consumption.
Aqeel Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Gharghan, Haider Jawad, Mahamod Ismail, and Mahmood Abu-AlShaeer MDPI AG
Single-tube loop coil (STLC) and multi-turn copper wire coil (MTCWC) wireless power transfer (WPT) methods are proposed in this study to overcome the challenges of battery life during low-power home appliance operations. Transfer power, efficiency, and distance are investigated for charging mobile devices on the basis of the two proposed systems. The transfer distances of 1–15 cm are considered because the practicality of this range has been proven to be reliable in the current work on mobile device battery charging. For STLC, the Li-ion battery is charged with total system efficiencies of 86.45%, 77.08%, and 52.08%, without a load, at distances of 2, 6, and 15 cm, respectively. When the system is loaded with 100 Ω at the corresponding distances, the transfer efficiencies are reduced to 80.66%, 66.66%, and 47.04%. For MTCWC, the battery is charged with total system efficiencies of 88.54%, 75%, and 52.08%, without a load, at the same distances of 2, 6, and 15 cm. When the system is loaded with 100 Ω at the corresponding distances, the transfer efficiencies are drastically reduced to 39.52%, 33.6%, and 15.13%. The contrasting results, between the STLC and MTCWC methods, are produced because of the misalignment between their transmitters and receiver coils. In addition, the diameter of the MTCWC is smaller than that of the STLC. The output power of the proposed system can charge the latest smartphone in the market, with generated output powers of 5 W (STLC) and 2 W (MTCWC). The above WPT methods are compared with other WPT methods in the literature.
Haider Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Gharghan, Aqeel Jawad, and Mahamod Ismail MDPI AG
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases. This review outlines the recent applications of WSNs in agriculture research as well as classifies and compares various wireless communication protocols, the taxonomy of energy-efficient and energy harvesting techniques for WSNs that can be used in agricultural monitoring systems, and comparison between early research works on agriculture-based WSNs. The challenges and limitations of WSNs in the agricultural domain are explored, and several power reduction and agricultural management techniques for long-term monitoring are highlighted. These approaches may also increase the number of opportunities for processing Internet of Things (IoT) data.
Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Haider Mahmood Jawad, and Mahamod Ismail MDPI AG
Traditional power supply cords have become less important because they prevent large-scale utilization and mobility. In addition, the use of batteries as a substitute for power cords is not an optimal solution because batteries have a short lifetime, thereby increasing the cost, weight, and ecological footprint of the hardware implementation. Their recharging or replacement is impractical and incurs operational costs. Recent progress has allowed electromagnetic wave energy to be transferred from power sources (i.e., transmitters) to destinations (i.e., receivers) wirelessly, the so-called wireless power transfer (WPT) technique. New developments in WPT technique motivate new avenues of research in different applications. Recently, WPT has been used in mobile phones, electric vehicles, medical implants, wireless sensor network, unmanned aerial vehicles, and so on. This review highlights up-to-date studies that are specific to near-field WPT, which include the classification, comparison, and potential applications of these techniques in the real world. In addition, limitations and challenges of these techniques are highlighted at the end of the article.