Swaminathan Chitraputhirapillai


Professor , Agronomy, Agricultural College and Res.Institute, Madurai- 625104, India
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University




Ph.D. in Forestry


Low Budget Naturalway Farming (Vrikshayurvedic farming)
Dryland Agriculture
Organic cultivation


Scopus Publications


Scholar Citations


Scholar h-index


Scholar i10-index

Scopus Publications

  • Performance of Pod Orientation at Sowing on Germination and its Related Attributes in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
    P. Nivethadevi, E. Sobhana, and C. Swaminathan

    Agricultural Research Communication Center
    Background: A Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, India during summer, 2020 to evaluate performance of different orientations of double pod sowing in comparison with kernel sowing (practice) on germination variability, yield and its related parameters of peanut. Methods: The experiment set up with four treatments replicated four times with pods sowing orientations viz., i) Sowing with vertical posterior-upwards ii) Vertical posterior-downwards iii) horizontal sowing and iv) sowing with kernels. Result: Results showed a little variation in germination between sowing orientation of double pods compared to kernel sowing. Though, mean germination percentage, germination energy, germination value and emergence energy value were higher in kernel sowing, pod sowing with vertical-posterior downwards elevated germination percent up to 97.45% and also inflated germination attributes and yield.

  • A bibliometric analysis of the Journal of Agrometeorology (JAM) from 2008 to 2022

    Association of Agrometeorologists
    A quantitative analysis of scientific articles published in the Journal of Agrometeorology (JAM) between 2008 and 2022 was conducted using a variety of scientometric indicators. Various metrics were utilized to examine aspects including yearly research output, highly referenced sources, author rankings, contributions and profiles, cooperation trends, highly contributing nations, most cited papers, commonly searched keywords and worldwide collaboration mapping. This study employs biblioshiny for analysis and only looks at data that is available in Scopus database. With an h-index (17), a g-index (21) and 3238 total citations across the study period, the journal demonstrated considerable influence. With the greatest number of research publications (n=46) and the greatest number of citations (236), Pandey V stands out among other authors. In terms of the number of papers and citations, India emerged as the leading nation, with the Punjab Agricultural University in the lead with 744 publications. Four clusters were found by co-citation network analysis, with Allen RG being the most quoted author among them. The study also highlighted the fact that Indian authors worked together the most. This analysis is important for assessing the influence of the JAM and offers insightful information about noteworthy research trends and developments in the scientific community.

  • Identification of Phytochemical Constituents in Phyllanthus acidus L. Leaf through Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy as Biostimulant
    K. Sangeetha, C. Swaminathan, S. Vellaikumar, P. Nivethadevi, P. Kannan, and E. Subramanian

    Asian Journal of Chemistry
    The Phyllanthus acidus L. belongs to the family phyllanthaceae and possess a wide range of secondary metabolites and phytochemicals in leaves. To siphon off the use of synthetic chemicals in crop production, an alternative like utilizing the natural bio-stimulants could play a crucial role in promoting crop growth and development. The major goal of this study was to employ gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine the bioactive compounds present in phyllanthus leaf and to identify and characterize them utilizing dichloromethane as extraction solvent. According to GC-MS analysis, dichloromethane extraction of phyllanthus leaf yielded, 25 phytoconstituents in which ethyl oleate contributed the area percentage of 53.68%, hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester by 17.47%, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester by 4.56%, squalene by 1.93% and cyclodecasiloxane, eicosamethyl- by 1.80% were having the largest area coverage percentage. Since most of the phytoconstituents are growth stimulants, it is suggested that phyllanthus leaf extracts be produced on a commercial scale as an exogenous biostimulant for plant growth and development.

  • Challenges in Pulses Productivity and Agronomic Opportunities for Enhancing Growth and Yield in Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]: A Review
    C. Swaminathan, R. Surya, E. Subramanian, and P. Arunachalam

    Agricultural Research Communication Center
    Background: Blackgram is an important pulse crop. The productivity of crops can be enhanced through various input management and selection of suitable genotypes for different systems and seasons of cultivation. An attempt was made to gather published information on crop management for yield maximisation. Methods: This work was done at Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625104, Tamil Nadu, India. A systematic cum integrative review of research work done in different parts of World, particularly in India was comprehended. The literature search was done during September, 2019- February, 2020. About 200 review and research papers were screened from various data bases like TNAU e library, ARCC journals, Google scholar, Research gate and Scopus and 88 papers were used to write this paper. Result: This review article documents information gathered on importance of pulses, production and productivity status of blackgram, zero-budget, low-budget management techniques, INM, IPM, weed management besides foliar nutrition for yield enhancement under different systems of cultivation along-with genotype details for different seasons and situations and was presented comprehensively.

  • Conservation Agriculture Practices: Impact on Productivity, Energy Utilisation and Profitability of Legume-based Cropping System
    E. Sobhana, C. Swaminathan, P. Kannan, and A. Gurusamy

    Agricultural Research Communication Center
    Background: Conservation agriculture (CA), an agricultural production system with optimum inputs, high returns and sustainability while conserving environment is primarily required for command areas and rainfed uplands. CA helps to improve and conserve soil health through crop rotation, mulching, minimum field traffic and mechanical soil disturbance etc and conserve water to achieve economically and ecologically sustainable crop production. Methods: The field experiment was conducted for two years during 2019-21 to evaluate the influence of conservation agricultural practices on the system productivity, production efficiency and energy use under legume based cropping system in a command area. Treatments comprised of four cropping systems as Groundnut - foxtail millet (C1), Groundnut - barnyard millet (C2), Daincha - foxtail millet (C3) and Daincha - barn yard millet (C4) in main plots and foliar application of organics, 3% panchagavya, 1% PPFM and 0.1% humic acid formed subplots. Result: System productivity in terms of Groundnut equivalent yield (GEY) was significantly higher (8395 kg/ha) in the Groundnut - Barnyard millet cropping system with foliar application of PPFM 1% in CA system than that of conventional method. The production efficiency was maximum in Groundnut - barnyard millet system (34.41 kg/ha/day) and Groundnut - foxtail millet recorded the highest energy use efficiency (6.8%) which shows that maximum energy was effectively utilized under the system. Daincha - foxtail millet system had highest energy productivity of 0.91 kg M/J. Thus, the conservation tillage based Groundnut - barnyard millet system recorded more system productivity, highest resource use efficiency (both production and land use efficiency) and the highest energy use efficiency.

  • Seed Fortification and Foliar Spraying with Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Enhances Yield and Yield Attributes in Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]
    P. Nivethadevi, C. Swaminathan, P. Kannan, and E. Tamilselvi

    Agricultural Research Communication Center
    Background: Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.), the most important highly prized pulse crops is grown throughout India. The productivity can be evaluated through various input management practices including inorganic and organic as well as natural way of cultivation. Methods: Both lab and field investigations were carried out to choose best tree leaf extracts for seed fortification and foliar nutrition in blackgram and also to evaluate performance of Vrikshayurvedic farming practices with seed fortification and foliar spraying of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and basal nutrition of Delonix regia. Comparison with conventional scientific practices and do-nothing farming practice was also made. Result: Vrikshayurvedic farming (Delonix regia + Moringa oleifera @ 5%) as green leaf manure and foliar spray with tree leaf extract, respectively, registered highest vales for growth and yield parameters. It was at par with conventional scientific practice (RDF @ 25:50:25 NPK kg ha-1 and foliar spray with DAP 2% twice @ 30 and 45 DAS). It is inferred that vrikshayurveda treatments resulted in better plant growth, DMP, seed yield, pod yield equivalent as that of conventional practice and superior to do-nothing practice. It also helps to improve and maintain soil fertility over a long period of time.

    C Swaminathan and M Anbarasu

    Forest Research Institute Malaysia

  • Applying both biochar and phosphobacteria enhances Vigna mungo L. growth and yield in acid soils by increasing soil pH, moisture content, microbial growth and P availability
    Kannan P., Paramasivan M., Marimuthu S., Swaminathan C., and Jayakumar Bose

    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Elsevier BV
    Abstract Rainfed black gram (Vigna mungo L.) production in low pH alfisol is severely hampered by the sporadic and greater intensity of rainfall as well as low availability of soil phosphorous. Developing suitable management practices is critical to mitigating the ill effects of rainfall variability and low phosphorous availability. Applying biochar, a soil conditioner produced from various bio-waste has been suggested to improve soil moisture content and carbon level. Similarly applying phosphobacteria, a bio-inoculant can enhance P availability to black gram crops. However, the interaction between biochar and phosphobacteria application in low pH Alfisol under rainfed conditions is not fully explored. To fill this knowledge gap, field experiments were conducted to assess the effect of biochar and Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum (Pb-1) on the availability of phosphorous, black gram growth, and yield. The factors tested were redgram stalk biochar and Australian acacia biochar, enriched farmyard manure, phosphobacteria, and phosphorus fertilizer and their various combinations. Biochar application at 5 t ha−1 increased soil moisture retention and reduced the penetration resistance. The addition of biochar with phosphobacteria positively enhanced the plant physiological parameters such as leaf area, stomatal conductance, SPAD, and reduced the leaf temperature. Application of redgram stalk biochar at 5 t ha−1 with phosphobacteria 2 kg ha−1 recorded higher organic carbon (4.7 g kg−1), soil available P (30.9 kg ha−1) and P uptake (4.6 kg ha−1), by 27, 28 and 45 percent respectively over P fertilizer alone applied treatment. The same treatment combination also recorded the highest seed yield (262 kg ha−1) implying the combined application of biochar and phosphobacteria has the potential to enhance black gram production in rain-fed low pH Alfisols.

  • Optimising sowing window for Sorghum bicolor L. and Panicum sumatrense L. in semiarid tropics

  • Exploring rainfall scenario of periyar vaigai command area for crop planning

  • Sulfur nutrition for enhancing rainfed groundnut productivity in typical alfisol of semi-arid regions in India
    P. Kannan, C. Swaminathan, and S. Ponmani

    Informa UK Limited
    ABSTRACT The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years from 2011 to 2014 to evaluate the influence of graded levels of gypsum as a source of sulfur and different times of application on soil fertility and yield parameters and yield of groundnut (TMV 7) under rainfed condition at Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Chettinad, Tamil Nadu, India. It is observed that sulfur nutrition significantly influenced growth, yield attributing characters and yield over control. Sulfur nutrition through gypsum as a source 400 kg ha−1 in split mode viz., 200 kg as basal and 200 kg as top dressing during receipt of rains recorded highest plant height, more number of filled pods per plant, higher values for 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod yield and haulm yield. Split application of gypsum 400 kg ha−1 has increased pod yield to the tune of 31, 21 and 36 percent during 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively.

  • Effect of biochar amendment on soil physical, chemical and biological properties and groundnut yield in rainfed Alfisol of semi-arid tropics
    Kannan Pandian, Ponmani Subramaniayan, Prabukumar Gnasekaran, and Swaminathan Chitraputhirapillai

    Informa UK Limited
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biochar and organic soil amendments on soil physicochemical and microbial load, carbon sequestration potential, nutrient uptake and yield of groundnut in acidic red soil under rainfed condition. Biochar was prepared from red gram, cotton, maize stalk and mesquite wood using pilot scale slow pyrolysis biochar unit. The above sources of biochar at the rate of 2.5 and 5 t ha−1 and enriched farmyard manure 0.75 t ha−1, composted coir pith 10 t ha−1 and arbuscular mycorrhizae 100 kg ha−1 were applied as basal with required nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizer. Biochar amendment at the rate of 5 t ha−1 reduced the bulk density from 1.41 to 1.36 g cm−3 and increased the soil moisture 2.5%. With respect to soil chemical changes, it raised soil pH from 5.7 to 6.3; increased the cation exchange capacity 1.4 cmol+ kg−1 and enhanced the carbon buildup 4.4 t ha−1. The significant differences in bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes population were observed between biochar and control. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were better utilized under biochar and composted coir pith, which was 21, 5 and 20 kg ha−1 higher than control. The experimental results suggested that application of biochar to acidic red soil favoured good soil physical, chemical and biological environment, and these positive changes influenced growth and yield attributes and enhanced pod yield 29% over control.

  • Influence of microbial inoculants on seedling production in teak, (Tectona grandis Linn f.)
    C. Swaminathan and V. M. Srinivasan

    Informa UK Limited
    Abstract An experiment was conducted in forest college campus, Mettupalayam, India with an objective of studying the influence of microbial inoculants on seedling growth of teak. The fruits were collected from the seed production area in top slip (Tamil Nadu) from 63-year mother trees. The microbial inoculants viz., Azospirillum, Azotobacter, phosphobacteria, AMF, Azospirillum + AMF, Azotobacter+ AMF, phosphobacteria + AMF and an uninoculated control formed the treatments. The inoculants were mixed sand and red soil at 1:1:3 ratio, respectively, for preparing nursery mixture for filling the poly pots. The seeds were sown into the poly pots @ two seeds per pot. The experiment was set up in a randomized Block Design with three replications. Biometric observations on various growth attributes were recorded six months after treatment and also their survival in the main field-tested for one year. Azotobacter gave best performance with respect to shoot length, shoot weight and leaf area and combined inoculation of phosphobacteria and AMF gave higher root length and biomass, dry matter production and fine root weight. The survival was better in seedlings that were inoculated with phosphobacteria and AMF. However, below ground biomass and out planting survival during early phase are critical in any tree species. Hence it is concluded that inoculation of phosphobacteria and AMF conjointly be done for better survival and growth of teak seedlings.

  • Influence of micronutrients on seedling production in teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f.)

  • Improving germination in two Australian acacias

  • Sowing methods for pasture establishment in semi-arid regions

  • Sustainable tree mixtures: Optimum species combination for a tropical alfisol of southern india
    C. Swaminathan

    Informa UK Limited
    ABSTRACT A five year field experiment was conducted to obtain information which will facilitate the scientific development of tree mixtures in an agroforestry system with two fruit trees, mango (Mangifera indica L.) and sapota (Achrus sapota L.) and three fast growing forest trees eucalyptus (Eucalyptus tereticornis L.), casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G. Forst) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit). Observations on biometrics and edaphic parameters were recorded. The results revealed that growth of sapota can be enhanced by 17% when grown in mixture with leucaena while co-planting of casuarina had no influence on sapota. A reduction of 12% in the growth of mango was observed when co-planted with casuarina or leucaena. Eucalyptus was incompatible with mango and sapota, which were suppressed by the former. The present investigation identified two tree mixtures sapota + leucaena and sapota + casuarina for raising in tropical alfisol for a sustainable income.

  • Reducing nursery period in four tropical hardwoods by Rhizobium inoculation

  • Comparative performance of cenchrus-legumes mixtures as understorey in Acacia leucophloea for silvipasture

  • Effects of eucalyptus and casuarina on the yield of intercrops in agroforestry systems

  • Early growth performance of mango and cashew coplanted with four nitrogen fixers in a tropical alfisol
    C. Swaminathan, C. V. Dhanakodi, and S. Mariappan

    Informa UK Limited
    Abstract A five year field experiment was conducted to get information which will facilitate the scientific development of tree mixtures in an agroforestry system with two fruit trees viz., mango (Mangifera indica L.) and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and four tropical nitrogen fixers viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia holosericea, Casua-rina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala. Observations on biometrics and edaphic parameters were recorded. Enhanced growth of cashew and mango was observed when coplanted with casuarina and leucaena, respectively. The enhanced height growth of cashew by 25% is recorded when interplanted with casuarina and plant girth (10.8 cm) was maximum when interplanted with leucaena. About 11% increase in height growth of mango was registered when interplanted with leucaena. The investigation identified two nitrogen fixers namely casuarina and leucaena for coplanting in cashew and mango orchards, respectively in the initial establishment Stage.

  • Seedling invigoration through plant growth substances in teak (Tectona grandis)

  • Effect of bark leachates of multipurpose trees on germination and seedling growth of maize, pigeonpea and sesame


  • Influence of coir pith application on soil moisture distribution with different irrigation regimes of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivation under trickle irrigation system
    Indian Journal of Agronomy 69 (1), 33-37 2024

  • Rooftop Gardening-Sustains Urban life
    S Gokul, C Swaminathan, P Kathirvelan, M Jayaraj, M Asritha, K Surya
    Farming at Home, 192 2024

  • Happy and Healthy Home
    S Sakthivel, P Kathirvelan, C Swaminathan
    Farming at Home, 10 2024

  • Indoor Plants Keep You And Your Home Fresh And Green
    V Kalaimathi, P Kathirvelan, C Swaminathan
    Farming at Home, 22 2024

  • Soil Moisture and Temperature Management Using IoT for Sustainable Farming
    P Kannan, M Mohamed Roshan Abu Firnass, J Bose, S Ponmani, ...
    Artificial Intelligence and Smart Agriculture: Technology and Applications 2024

  • A Bibliometric Analysis of Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research (IJFTR)
    G Pavithra, C Swaminathan, P Kathirvelan, SP Sangeetha

  • Journal of Tropical Forest Science-a Seminal Publication Benefits Forest Researcher Worldwide as Demonstrated by Bibliometric Analysis (2001 to 2023)
    S GOKUL, C Swaminathan, P Kathirvelan, P Kannan

  • A bibliometric analysis of the Journal of Agrometeorology (JAM) from 2008 to 2022
    Journal of Agrometeorology 26 (1), 1-17 2024

  • Biochar–a sustainable soil conditioner for improving soil health, crop production and environment under changing climate: a review
    K Pandian, S Vijayakumar, MRAF Mustaffa, P Subramanian, ...
    Frontiers in Soil Science 4, 1376159 2024

  • Synthesis of biochar‐embedded slow‐release nitrogen fertilizers: Mesocosm and field scale evaluation for nitrogen use efficiency, growth and rice yield
    MRAF Mustaffa, K Pandian, S Chitraputhirapillai, S Kuppusamy, ...
    Soil Use and Management 40 (1), e12959 2024

  • கார்த்திகை தீபமும் விஞ்ஞானமும்
    SC Pillai
    Available at SSRN 4645137 2023

  • LBNF Practices Combined with Crop Diversification Achieves Soil Organic Carbon Principle ‘4p1000’under Tropical Conditions
    C Swaminathan, P Nivethadevi, K Sangeetha, P Kannan
    International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 35 (15), 296-304 2023

  • Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Leaves Bring Together the Cultural Values and Scientific Heritage of the Indians for Centuries
    SC Pillai, N Palani

  • Bio efficacy of different aqueous leaf extraction of Morinda tinctoria against seed germination and its related attributes in camel crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench)
    CSPK Nivethadevi P
    The Pharma Innovation Journal 12 (7), 38-44 2023

  • Influence of tree botanicals on seed germination and enzyme activity in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)
    BSPK K. Sangeetha, C. Swaminathan, E. Subramanian
    Allelopathy Journal 59 (1), 49-68 2023

  • Four ‘Bio’ Traits Craft Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp) to Survive in a Dry Soil Environment under Intercropping Situation -A Review
    MMY Swaminathan Chitraputhirapillai, P. Kannan, N. Krishnaprabu
    International Journal of Plant and Environment 8 (8), 39-46 2023

  • Biochar-NextGen Organic Soil Amendment
    SC Pillai, P Kannan, N Palani
    Available at SSRN 4216293 2022

  • திருமூலரின் அறிவியல் சிந்தனைகள் (Scientific Thoughts of Thirumoolar)
    C Swaminathan, M Patmanaban
    Journal of Tamil Peraivu (தமிழ்ப் பேராய்வு ஆய்விதழ்) 11 (2), 22-32 2022

  • Biochar - NextGen Organic Soil Amendment
    PN C. Swaminathan, P.Kannan
    https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4216293, 3 2022

    KSMRN C. Swaminathan, P. Nivethadevi
    Journal of Plant Development Sciences 14 (8), 665-677 2022


  • Effect of biochar amendment on soil physical, chemical and biological properties and groundnut yield in rainfed Alfisol of semi-arid tropics
    K Pandian, P Subramaniayan, P Gnasekaran, S Chitraputhirapillai
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 62 (9), 1293-1310 2016
    Citations: 156

    C Swaminathan, RSV Rai, KK Suresh
    International Tree Crops Journal 6 (2-3), 143-150 1990
    Citations: 94

  • Panchgavya: Boon To Organic Farming
    C Swaminathan
    IBDC Publishers 2007
    Citations: 87

  • Applying both biochar and phosphobacteria enhances Vigna mungo L. growth and yield in acid soils by increasing soil pH, moisture content, microbial growth and P availability
    P Kannan, M Paramasivan, S Marimuthu, C Swaminathan, J Bose
    Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 308, 107258 2021
    Citations: 57

  • Allelopathic proclivities of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del.
    C Swaminathan, RSV Rai, KK Suresh
    Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 56-60 1989
    Citations: 50

  • Evaluation of Seed Test Weight on Major Field Crops
    SCS Deivasigamani
    International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences 4 (1), 8-11 2018
    Citations: 45

  • Neem, a treatise
    KK Singh
    IK International Pvt Ltd 2009
    Citations: 43

  • Preliminary evaluation of variations in anatomical properties of Melia dubia Cav. Wood
    RVRSS Swaminathan, C.
    ISCA Journal of Biological sciences. 1 (4), 1-8 2012
    Citations: 31

  • Food production through vrkshayurvedic way
    C Swaminathan
    Technol. for Natural Farming, 18-22 2005
    Citations: 30

  • Effects of combined application of biofertilisers with neem cake on soil fertility, grain yield and protein content of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).
    R Murugan, SC Swaminathan Chitraputhirapillai, PFU Niemsdorff, ...
    Citations: 23

  • Genetic variability studies in fodder cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)
    D Malarvizhi, C Swaminathan, S Robin, K Kannan
    Legume Research-An International Journal 28 (1), 52-54 2005
    Citations: 23

  • Improving seed germination of Derris indica by vertical sowing
    C Swaminathan, RSV Rai, KK Suresh, K Sivaganam
    Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 152-158 1993
    Citations: 22

  • Sulfur nutrition for enhancing rainfed groundnut productivity in typical alfisol of semi-arid regions in India
    P Kannan, C Swaminathan, S Ponmani
    Journal of Plant Nutrition 40 (6), 828-840 2017
    Citations: 18

  • Challenges in Pulses Productivity and Agronomic Opportunities for Enhancing Growth and Yield in Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]: A Review
    PA C. Swaminathan, R. Surya, E. Subramanian
    Legume Research-An International journal 2021
    Citations: 12

  • Seedling invigoration through plant growth substances in teak (Tectona grandis)
    C Swaminathan, VM Srinivasan
    Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 310-316 1996
    Citations: 12

  • Improving seed germination in Sapindus emarginatus Vahl
    C Swaminathan, R Revathy
    Citations: 11

  • Effect of bark leachates of multipurpose trees on germination and seedling growth of maize, pigeonpea and sesame.
    C Swaminathan
    Allelopathy Journal 3 (1), 77-80 1996
    Citations: 10

  • Exploring Rainfall Scenario of Periyar Vaigai Command Area for Crop Planning
    NK Sathyamoorthy, AP Ramaraj, K Senthilraja, C Swaminathan, ...
    Indian Journal of Ecology 45 (1), 11-18 2018
    Citations: 9

  • Panchagavya
    C Swaminathan, V Swaminathan, R Richard Kennedy
    Kisan World 1, 57-58 2007
    Citations: 9

  • Importance of seed management on germination and seedling growth of four tropical legumes.
    C Swaminathan, P Srimathi
    Citations: 9