Professor , Agronomy, Agricultural College and Res.Institute, Madurai- 625104, India
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Ph.D. in Forestry
Low Budget Naturalway Farming (Vrikshayurvedic farming)
K. Sangeetha International Allelopathy Foundation
K. Sangeetha, C. Swaminathan, S. Vellaikumar, P. Nivethadevi, P. Kannan, and E. Subramanian Asian Journal of Chemistry
The Phyllanthus acidus L. belongs to the family phyllanthaceae and possess a wide range of secondary metabolites and phytochemicals in leaves. To siphon off the use of synthetic chemicals in crop production, an alternative like utilizing the natural bio-stimulants could play a crucial role in promoting crop growth and development. The major goal of this study was to employ gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine the bioactive compounds present in phyllanthus leaf and to identify and characterize them utilizing dichloromethane as extraction solvent. According to GC-MS analysis, dichloromethane extraction of phyllanthus leaf yielded, 25 phytoconstituents in which ethyl oleate contributed the area percentage of 53.68%, hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester by 17.47%, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester by 4.56%, squalene by 1.93% and cyclodecasiloxane, eicosamethyl- by 1.80% were having the largest area coverage percentage. Since most of the phytoconstituents are growth stimulants, it is suggested that phyllanthus leaf extracts be produced on a commercial scale as an exogenous biostimulant for plant growth and development.
C. Swaminathan, R. Surya, E. Subramanian, and P. Arunachalam Agricultural Research Communication Center
Background: Blackgram is an important pulse crop. The productivity of crops can be enhanced through various input management and selection of suitable genotypes for different systems and seasons of cultivation. An attempt was made to gather published information on crop management for yield maximisation. Methods: This work was done at Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625104, Tamil Nadu, India. A systematic cum integrative review of research work done in different parts of World, particularly in India was comprehended. The literature search was done during September, 2019- February, 2020. About 200 review and research papers were screened from various data bases like TNAU e library, ARCC journals, Google scholar, Research gate and Scopus and 88 papers were used to write this paper. Result: This review article documents information gathered on importance of pulses, production and productivity status of blackgram, zero-budget, low-budget management techniques, INM, IPM, weed management besides foliar nutrition for yield enhancement under different systems of cultivation along-with genotype details for different seasons and situations and was presented comprehensively.
E. Sobhana, C. Swaminathan, P. Kannan, and A. Gurusamy Agricultural Research Communication Center
Background: Conservation agriculture (CA), an agricultural production system with optimum inputs, high returns and sustainability while conserving environment is primarily required for command areas and rainfed uplands. CA helps to improve and conserve soil health through crop rotation, mulching, minimum field traffic and mechanical soil disturbance etc and conserve water to achieve economically and ecologically sustainable crop production. Methods: The field experiment was conducted for two years during 2019-21 to evaluate the influence of conservation agricultural practices on the system productivity, production efficiency and energy use under legume based cropping system in a command area. Treatments comprised of four cropping systems as Groundnut - foxtail millet (C1), Groundnut - barnyard millet (C2), Daincha - foxtail millet (C3) and Daincha - barn yard millet (C4) in main plots and foliar application of organics, 3% panchagavya, 1% PPFM and 0.1% humic acid formed subplots. Result: System productivity in terms of Groundnut equivalent yield (GEY) was significantly higher (8395 kg/ha) in the Groundnut - Barnyard millet cropping system with foliar application of PPFM 1% in CA system than that of conventional method. The production efficiency was maximum in Groundnut - barnyard millet system (34.41 kg/ha/day) and Groundnut - foxtail millet recorded the highest energy use efficiency (6.8%) which shows that maximum energy was effectively utilized under the system. Daincha - foxtail millet system had highest energy productivity of 0.91 kg M/J. Thus, the conservation tillage based Groundnut - barnyard millet system recorded more system productivity, highest resource use efficiency (both production and land use efficiency) and the highest energy use efficiency.
P. Nivethadevi, C. Swaminathan, P. Kannan, and E. Tamilselvi Agricultural Research Communication Center
Background: Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.), the most important highly prized pulse crops is grown throughout India. The productivity can be evaluated through various input management practices including inorganic and organic as well as natural way of cultivation. Methods: Both lab and field investigations were carried out to choose best tree leaf extracts for seed fortification and foliar nutrition in blackgram and also to evaluate performance of Vrikshayurvedic farming practices with seed fortification and foliar spraying of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and basal nutrition of Delonix regia. Comparison with conventional scientific practices and do-nothing farming practice was also made. Result: Vrikshayurvedic farming (Delonix regia + Moringa oleifera @ 5%) as green leaf manure and foliar spray with tree leaf extract, respectively, registered highest vales for growth and yield parameters. It was at par with conventional scientific practice (RDF @ 25:50:25 NPK kg ha-1 and foliar spray with DAP 2% twice @ 30 and 45 DAS). It is inferred that vrikshayurveda treatments resulted in better plant growth, DMP, seed yield, pod yield equivalent as that of conventional practice and superior to do-nothing practice. It also helps to improve and maintain soil fertility over a long period of time.
C Swaminathan and M Anbarasu Forest Research Institute Malaysia
P. Kannan, S. Ponmani, G. Prabukumar, and C. Swaminathan Soil Use and Management Wiley
Kannan P., Paramasivan M., Marimuthu S., Swaminathan C., and Jayakumar Bose Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Elsevier BV
Abstract Rainfed black gram (Vigna mungo L.) production in low pH alfisol is severely hampered by the sporadic and greater intensity of rainfall as well as low availability of soil phosphorous. Developing suitable management practices is critical to mitigating the ill effects of rainfall variability and low phosphorous availability. Applying biochar, a soil conditioner produced from various bio-waste has been suggested to improve soil moisture content and carbon level. Similarly applying phosphobacteria, a bio-inoculant can enhance P availability to black gram crops. However, the interaction between biochar and phosphobacteria application in low pH Alfisol under rainfed conditions is not fully explored. To fill this knowledge gap, field experiments were conducted to assess the effect of biochar and Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum (Pb-1) on the availability of phosphorous, black gram growth, and yield. The factors tested were redgram stalk biochar and Australian acacia biochar, enriched farmyard manure, phosphobacteria, and phosphorus fertilizer and their various combinations. Biochar application at 5 t ha−1 increased soil moisture retention and reduced the penetration resistance. The addition of biochar with phosphobacteria positively enhanced the plant physiological parameters such as leaf area, stomatal conductance, SPAD, and reduced the leaf temperature. Application of redgram stalk biochar at 5 t ha−1 with phosphobacteria 2 kg ha−1 recorded higher organic carbon (4.7 g kg−1), soil available P (30.9 kg ha−1) and P uptake (4.6 kg ha−1), by 27, 28 and 45 percent respectively over P fertilizer alone applied treatment. The same treatment combination also recorded the highest seed yield (262 kg ha−1) implying the combined application of biochar and phosphobacteria has the potential to enhance black gram production in rain-fed low pH Alfisols.
P. Kannan, C. Swaminathan, and S. Ponmani Informa UK Limited
ABSTRACT The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years from 2011 to 2014 to evaluate the influence of graded levels of gypsum as a source of sulfur and different times of application on soil fertility and yield parameters and yield of groundnut (TMV 7) under rainfed condition at Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Chettinad, Tamil Nadu, India. It is observed that sulfur nutrition significantly influenced growth, yield attributing characters and yield over control. Sulfur nutrition through gypsum as a source 400 kg ha−1 in split mode viz., 200 kg as basal and 200 kg as top dressing during receipt of rains recorded highest plant height, more number of filled pods per plant, higher values for 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod yield and haulm yield. Split application of gypsum 400 kg ha−1 has increased pod yield to the tune of 31, 21 and 36 percent during 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively.
Kannan Pandian, Ponmani Subramaniayan, Prabukumar Gnasekaran, and Swaminathan Chitraputhirapillai Informa UK Limited
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biochar and organic soil amendments on soil physicochemical and microbial load, carbon sequestration potential, nutrient uptake and yield of groundnut in acidic red soil under rainfed condition. Biochar was prepared from red gram, cotton, maize stalk and mesquite wood using pilot scale slow pyrolysis biochar unit. The above sources of biochar at the rate of 2.5 and 5 t ha−1 and enriched farmyard manure 0.75 t ha−1, composted coir pith 10 t ha−1 and arbuscular mycorrhizae 100 kg ha−1 were applied as basal with required nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizer. Biochar amendment at the rate of 5 t ha−1 reduced the bulk density from 1.41 to 1.36 g cm−3 and increased the soil moisture 2.5%. With respect to soil chemical changes, it raised soil pH from 5.7 to 6.3; increased the cation exchange capacity 1.4 cmol+ kg−1 and enhanced the carbon buildup 4.4 t ha−1. The significant differences in bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes population were observed between biochar and control. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were better utilized under biochar and composted coir pith, which was 21, 5 and 20 kg ha−1 higher than control. The experimental results suggested that application of biochar to acidic red soil favoured good soil physical, chemical and biological environment, and these positive changes influenced growth and yield attributes and enhanced pod yield 29% over control.
C. Swaminathan and V. M. Srinivasan Informa UK Limited
Abstract An experiment was conducted in forest college campus, Mettupalayam, India with an objective of studying the influence of microbial inoculants on seedling growth of teak. The fruits were collected from the seed production area in top slip (Tamil Nadu) from 63-year mother trees. The microbial inoculants viz., Azospirillum, Azotobacter, phosphobacteria, AMF, Azospirillum + AMF, Azotobacter+ AMF, phosphobacteria + AMF and an uninoculated control formed the treatments. The inoculants were mixed sand and red soil at 1:1:3 ratio, respectively, for preparing nursery mixture for filling the poly pots. The seeds were sown into the poly pots @ two seeds per pot. The experiment was set up in a randomized Block Design with three replications. Biometric observations on various growth attributes were recorded six months after treatment and also their survival in the main field-tested for one year. Azotobacter gave best performance with respect to shoot length, shoot weight and leaf area and combined inoculation of phosphobacteria and AMF gave higher root length and biomass, dry matter production and fine root weight. The survival was better in seedlings that were inoculated with phosphobacteria and AMF. However, below ground biomass and out planting survival during early phase are critical in any tree species. Hence it is concluded that inoculation of phosphobacteria and AMF conjointly be done for better survival and growth of teak seedlings.
C. Swaminathan Informa UK Limited
ABSTRACT A five year field experiment was conducted to obtain information which will facilitate the scientific development of tree mixtures in an agroforestry system with two fruit trees, mango (Mangifera indica L.) and sapota (Achrus sapota L.) and three fast growing forest trees eucalyptus (Eucalyptus tereticornis L.), casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G. Forst) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit). Observations on biometrics and edaphic parameters were recorded. The results revealed that growth of sapota can be enhanced by 17% when grown in mixture with leucaena while co-planting of casuarina had no influence on sapota. A reduction of 12% in the growth of mango was observed when co-planted with casuarina or leucaena. Eucalyptus was incompatible with mango and sapota, which were suppressed by the former. The present investigation identified two tree mixtures sapota + leucaena and sapota + casuarina for raising in tropical alfisol for a sustainable income.
C. Swaminathan, C. V. Dhanakodi, and S. Mariappan Informa UK Limited
Abstract A five year field experiment was conducted to get information which will facilitate the scientific development of tree mixtures in an agroforestry system with two fruit trees viz., mango (Mangifera indica L.) and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and four tropical nitrogen fixers viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia holosericea, Casua-rina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala. Observations on biometrics and edaphic parameters were recorded. Enhanced growth of cashew and mango was observed when coplanted with casuarina and leucaena, respectively. The enhanced height growth of cashew by 25% is recorded when interplanted with casuarina and plant girth (10.8 cm) was maximum when interplanted with leucaena. About 11% increase in height growth of mango was registered when interplanted with leucaena. The investigation identified two nitrogen fixers namely casuarina and leucaena for coplanting in cashew and mango orchards, respectively in the initial establishment Stage.