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Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Instituto Biomédico
UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL FLUMINESE
Bacteriology, Gram-positive cocci, antimicrobial resistance, molecular epidemiology
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Barbara Araújo dos Santos, Jessica da Silva de Oliveira, Bruna Marcela Parmanhani-da-Silva, Rachel Leite Ribeiro, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, and Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN: 15671348, eISSN: 15677257, Published: June 2020 Elsevier BV
We aimed to investigate the occurrence of CRISPR elements in the genomes of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible (VSE) enterococci and their association with the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. We analyzed 180 isolates, including 91 VRE and 89 VSE. Isolates were identified by PCR or MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial susceptibility and MICs for vancomycin were determined by the disk-diffusion method and E-test®, respectively. The presence of resistance and virulence genes, as well as CRISPR elements, was investigated by PCR. We identified 95 (53%) E. faecalis, 78 (43%) E. faecium, five (2.8%) E. gallinarum, and one (0.6% each) E. casseliflavus and E. durans. The highest and the lowest non-susceptibility frequencies were observed for erythromycin (n = 152; 84.4%) and fosfomycin (n = 5; 2.8%), respectively. Most erythromycin-resistant isolates had the erm(B) gene (106/152; 69.7%). Of 118 (65.6%) isolates with high-level resistance to aminoglycoside, 69 (58.5%) had at least one aminoglycoside resistance gene, mostly ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ie + aph(2″)-Ia. We found at least one virulence gene among 135 (75%) isolates, mostly gelE (79/180; 43.9%). Ninety-two (51.1%) isolates had at least one CRISPR element, especially CRISPR3 (62/92; 67.4%). CRISPR elements were more common among E. faecalis, in which we observed a relationship between the absence of CRISPR and the presence of the vanA resistance gene, and the hyl and esp virulence genes. Among VRE. faecium, a relationship was found between the absence of CRISPR and the hyl gene. In conclusion, we found evident associations between the lack of CRISPR elements with species, multidrug resistance, and major resistance- and virulence-associated genes.
Felipe P.G. Neves, Nayara T. Cardoso, Claudete A.A. Cardoso, Lúcia M. Teixeira, and Lee W. Riley
Vaccine, ISSN: 0264410X, eISSN: 18732518, Pages: 5265-5269, Published: 23 August 2019 Elsevier BV
BACKGROUND The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been commercially available in Brazil since 2010. We investigated the carriage prevalence, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci isolated from children immunized with PCV13 in Brazil. METHODS We analyzed 500 children < 6 years old attending public (n = 270) and private (n = 230) clinics in Niterói/RJ, Brazil, in 2014. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular types for all isolates. RESULTS Thirty-eight (7.6%) of 500 children had received at least one PCV13 dose. Since only two (0.7%) of 270 children at the public clinic were vaccinated with PCV13, major analyses focused on 36 (15.7%) of 230 children attending private clinics. Nine (25%) of 36 children were pneumococcal carriers. Characteristics associated with carriage were age ≥ 2 years, cough/expectoration, and childcare center attendance (p ≤ 0.01). The capsular types found were 15B/C (n = 2), 6C, 11A/D, 16F, 23A, and 23F. Two isolates were non-typeable (NT). Three (33.3%) isolates were multidrug resistant. We found four (44.4%) penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci, with penicillin and ceftriaxone MICs ranging from 0.12 to 4.0 µg/ml and 0.023-0.5 µg/ml, respectively. We also detected two (22.2%) erythromycin-resistant isolates (MICs of 3.0 and 256 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS Colonization with PCV13 serotype was rare among the vaccinated children. Increasing PCV13 coverage might help reduce the frequency of major serotypes currently associated with invasive pneumococcal diseases in Brazil, such as 3 and 19A. The isolation of multidrug-resistant serotype 6C and NT isolates in carriage, however, requires close monitoring.
Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Mariel Asbury Marlow, Gabriel Rezende-Pereira, Marcos Gabriel Pinheiro, Allyne Fandino Martinez dos Santos, Maria de Fátima Nogueira de Freitas, Rosana Rocha Barros, Fábio Aguiar-Alves, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, and Lee Woodland Riley
BMC Infectious Diseases, eISSN: 14712334, Published: 29 May 2019 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
BackgroundStaphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) diseases disproportionately affect populations in middle/low-income countries. To assess if this disparity is reflected in colonization by these organisms, we compared their colonization frequency among children from different socioeconomic status (SES) communities in a city with high income inequality.MethodsBetween May–August 2014, we collected nasal and throat swabs to investigate S. aureus and BHS colonization among children who attended private and public pediatric clinics. Patients were classified as high SES, middle/low SES, and slum residents. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile, the SCCmec types and the presence of PVL genes among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We also examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and serogroups of BHS.ResultsOf 598 children, 221 (37%) were colonized with S. aureus, of which 49 (22%) were MRSA. MRSA colonization was higher in middle/low SES (n = 18; 14%) compared with high SES (n = 17; 6%) and slum (n = 14; 8%) residents (p = 0.01). All MRSA strains were susceptible to clindamycin, nitrofurantoin, and rifampin. The highest non-susceptibility frequency (42.9%) was observed to erythromycin. SCCmec type V was only found in isolates from high SES children; types I and II were found only in middle/low SES children. Ten (20%) MRSA isolates carried PVL genes. Twenty-four (4%) children were BHS carriers. All BHS (n = 8) found in high SES children and six (67%) isolates from slum patients belonged to group A. All group B streptococci were from middle/low SES children, corresponding to five (71%) of the seven BHS isolated in this group. BHS isolates were susceptible to all drugs tested.ConclusionsChildren from different SES communities had distinct bacterial colonization profiles, including MRSA carriage. Public health officials/researchers should consider SES when assessing disease transmission and control measures.
Patricia Alice Knupp-Pereira, Nayara Torres Cardoso Marques, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa Póvoa, and Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, ISSN: 15178382, eISSN: 16784405, Published: 2019 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
In 2010, the 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced in Brazil to immunize children, resulting in serotype replacement. We analyzed 253 carriage isolates recovered from children aged <6 years in Brazil, including 124 and 129 isolates from the pre-PCV10/13 (December 2009-July 2010) and post-PCV10/13 (September-December 2014) periods, respectively, to investigate the prevalence of PspA families and pilus islets, potential vaccine candidates. Serotypes and resistance profiles were previously characterized. We used PCR to type PspA families (Fam1-3) and pilus islets (PI-1 and PI-2). We identified the PspA family of 130 (51.4%) isolates. PspA families 1, 2, and 3 were identified in 12.2%, 38.7%, and 0.4% of the isolates, respectively. Eighteen (58.1%) Fam1 isolates were serogroup 6. Nine (81.8%) of 11 serotype 14 isolates were Fam2. Fam1 isolates resistant to penicillin (50%), erythromycin (43.7%), clindamycin (31.2%), and chloramphenicol (6.2%) were only found after PCV10/13 introduction. Resistance among Fam2 isolates was higher in the post-PCV10/13 period to erythromycin (1.8% vs. 18.6%), clindamycin (0 vs. 13.9%), and tetracycline (10.9% vs. 16.3%). PI-I was detected in 42 (16.6%) isolates. Fourteen (56%) of 25 serotype 15B/C and nine (81.8%) of 11 serotype 14 isolates had PI-1 (p < 0.01). Eight (3.2%) isolates had PI-2, and six (75%) were serogroup 19. Five (2%) serogroup 19 isolates had both PI-1 and PI-2. We found associations between serogroups/serotypes, PspA families, and pilus islets, but distribution of PspA families and pilus islets was similar in both periods. After universal vaccination, we observed higher antimicrobial resistance frequencies, regardless PspA or pilus types.
Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Aline Rosa Vianna Souza, Laura Maria Andrade Oliveira, Natália Silva Costa, Luciana Fundão Souza Castro, Cláudia Rezende de Vieira Mendonça-Souza, José Mauro Peralta, and Lúcia Martins Teixeira
Frontiers in Microbiology, eISSN: 1664302X, Issue: MAR, Published: 2019 Frontiers Media SA
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis, and it is also found as a commensal, colonizing the human upper respiratory tract of a portion of the human population. Its polysaccharide capsule allows the recognition of more than 90 capsular types and represents the target of the currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), such as the 10-valent (PCV10) and the 13-valent (PCV13). Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) have been listed as one of the current major antimicrobial-resistant pathogen threats. In Brazil, the emergence of PNSP was initially detected in the mid 1990s and PCV10 has been part of the National Immunization Program since 2010. Here, we investigated the distribution of capsular types and penicillin susceptibility profiles of 783 pneumococcal strains isolated in Brazil between 1990 and 2014 to assess the evolution of penicillin non-susceptibility among pneumococci associated with asymptomatic carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The most common serotypes among carriage isolates were 19F, 6B, 6C, 23F, and 14. Among IPD isolates, the most frequent types were 14, 3, 6B, 5, 19F, and 4. We detected 21 types exclusively associated with IPD isolates, whereas non-typeable (NT) isolates were only detected in carriage. Nearly half of the isolates belonged to PCV10 serotypes, which remarkably decreased in occurrence (by nearly 50%) after PCV10 introduction (2011-2014), while non-PCV10 serotypes increased. PNSP frequency and levels were much higher among carriage isolates, but PNSP belonging to PCV10 serotypes were more common in IPD. While the occurrence of PNSP has decreased significantly among IPD isolates since 2011, it kept increasing among carriage strains. Such a difference can be attributed to the serotypes that emerged in each clinical source after PCV10 usage. PNSP with multidrug resistance profiles that emerged within carriage isolates comprised mostly serotypes 6C and 35B, as well as NT isolates. In turn, penicillin-susceptible capsular types 3, 20, and 8 have risen among IPD. Overall, our results reinforce the relevance of PNSP surveillance over a long period of time to better understand the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in response to PCV introduction and may also contribute to improve control measures toward drug-resistant pneumococci.
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Aline R V Souza, Robert E Snyder, Mariel M Marlow, Tatiana C A Pinto, Lúcia M Teixeira, and Lee W Riley
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN: 03057453, eISSN: 14602091, Pages: 1206-1212, Published: 1 May 2018 Oxford University Press (OUP)
Objectives To determine the population structure and change in drug resistance of pneumococci colonizing children before and after the introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13) in Brazil. Methods We used MLST to analyse 256 pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged <6 years before (2009-10; n = 125) and after (2014; n = 131) the introduction of the PCV10 and PCV13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular types were previously determined. Results We identified 97 different STs. Ninety (35.2%) isolates were related to international clones. The most frequent lineages were serogroup 6-CC724 (where CC stands for clonal complex) and the MDR serotype 6C-CC386 in the pre- and post-PCV10/13 periods, respectively. Penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) formed 24% and 38.9% of the pre- and post-PCV10/13 isolates, respectively (P = 0.01). In the pre-PCV10/13 period, serotype 14-ST156 was the predominant penicillin-non-susceptible lineage, but it was not detected in the post-PCV10/13 period. Serotype 14-ST156 and serotype 19A-ST320 complex isolates had the highest penicillin and ceftriaxone MICs in the pre- and post-PCV10/13 periods, respectively. In turn, serotype 6C-CC386 comprised almost 30% of the PNSP and over 40% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates (MIC >256 mg/L) in the post-PCV10/13 period. Conclusions Although PNSP strains were polyclonal, most resistant isolates belonged to a single genotype from each period. Higher erythromycin resistance prevalence (42%) in the post-PCV10/13 period was mainly attributed to MDR serotype 6C-CC386. Ongoing surveillance of pneumococcal clonal composition is important to evaluate PCV use outcomes and to identify factors other than PCVs that drive pneumococcal drug resistance evolution.
L. OLIVEIRA, L. SANTOS, and F. NEVES
Acta Virologica, ISSN: 0001723X, Pages: 172-178, Published: 2018 AEPress, s.r.o.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) exhibits epithelial and mucosal tropism. HPV type 17 belongs to the Betapapillomavirus genus and molecular cloning experiments have identified two subtypes (17a and 17b) isolated from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). HPV subtypes are characterized by dissimilarities from 2 to 10% at the nucleotide level from their referenced HPV. The aim of this study was to characterize the L1, E6, E7 and LCR sequences from an isolate, which was recovered from the oral mucosa of an asymptomatic 63 year-old woman. The whole late gene 1 (L1) was amplified using several sets of primers. The complete early genes 6 and 7 (E6, E7) and the long control region (LCR) were amplified using specific primers. Potential binding sites for transcriptional factors within the LCR were also investigated. Within these sets, the DNA sequence was altered at 91 positions (68 in L1, 13 in E6, 8 in E7, and 2 in LCR sequences). L1 analysis showed high dissimilarity compared with the HPV 17 prototype, reaching 4% of nucleotide substitutions and leading to a probable third 17 subtype. The E6 oncoprotein presented the highest modification among the sequences studied, with four amino acid changes in comparison with the prototype isolate. One amino acid was modified at a position 62 (S-T), a zinc-binding domain (CxxC(C)29 CxxC). Our findings provide data on genetic variations seen in this genotype, reaching to dichotomic branching and pointing to an evolutionary process.
Barbara A. Santos, Jéssica S. Oliveira, Nayara T. Cardoso, André V. Barbosa, Silvana V. Superti, Lúcia M. Teixeira, and Felipe P.G. Neves
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN: 15671348, eISSN: 15677257, Pages: 56-62, Published: November 2017 Elsevier BV
Cancer and hematological malignancies constitute major comorbidities in enterococcal infections, but little is known about the characteristics of enterococci affecting cancer patients. The aim of this study was to characterize 132 enterococcal clinical isolates obtained from cancer patients attending a Cancer Reference Center in Brazil between April 2013 and March 2014. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was assessed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for selected Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. The predominant species was E. faecalis (108 isolates), followed by E. faecium (18), Enterococcus gallinarum (3), Enterococcus avium (2) and Enterococcus durans (1). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates made up 44.7%, but all isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, linezolid and glycopeptides. The most prevalent genes associated with erythromycin- and tetracycline-non susceptible isolates were erm(B) (47/71; 66.2%) and tet(M) (24/68; 35.3%), respectively. High-level resistance (HLR) to gentamicin was found in 22 (16.7%) isolates and 13 (59.1%) of them carried the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. HLR to streptomycin was detected in 34 (25.8%) isolates, of which 15 (44.1%) isolates had the ant(6')-Ia gene. The most common virulence genes were gelE (48.9%), esp (30.5%) and asa1 (29.8%). MLST performed for 26 E. faecalis isolates revealed 18 different sequence-types (STs), with seven corresponding to novel STs (625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, and 635). On the other hand, nine of 10 E. faecium isolates analyzed by MLST belonged to a single clonal complex, comprised of mostly ST412, which emerged worldwide after mid-2000s, but also two novel STs (963 and 964). We detected major globally disseminated E. faecalis and E. faecium clonal complexes along with novel closely related STs, indicating the fitness and continuous evolution of these hospital-adapted lineages.
H. G. RODRIGUES, T. C. A. PINTO, R. R. BARROS, L. M. TEIXEIRA, and F. P. G. NEVES
Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN: 09502688, eISSN: 14694409, Volume: 145, Pages: 1720-1726, Published: 1 June 2017 Cambridge University Press (CUP)
SUMMARYWe performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium. Colonisation prevalence was 58·3% (n = 141), being higher among children attending the childcare centre (62·7% vs. 55%). The culture-based methods (DC and BEC) enabled the detection of S. pneumoniae in 119 (49·2%) and 115 (47·5%) children, respectively. The PCR-based method (BEPCR) was more sensitive and 137 (56·6%) carriers were identified. Twenty-six serogroups/serotypes were identified, predominantly 6B, 19F, 14, 6A, 15C and 23F. Multiple colonisation was observed in 13 (5·4%) children. The estimated serotypes coverage of available PCVs was 40·4% for the 10-valent (included in the Brazilian immunisation programme) and 55·8% for the 13-valent (only available in private clinics). The use of robust approaches to obtain a more realistic insight about the asymptomatic carrier status is of paramount importance to estimate and assess the impact of vaccine implementation. The combination between culture-based and molecular methods constitutes a suitable strategy.
Felipe P.G. Neves, Nayara T. Cardoso, Robert E. Snyder, Mariel A. Marlow, Claudete A.A. Cardoso, Lúcia M. Teixeira, and Lee W. Riley
Vaccine, ISSN: 0264410X, eISSN: 18732518, Pages: 2794-2800, Published: 15 May 2017 Elsevier BV
BACKGROUND In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular types were determined for all isolates. RESULTS Of 522 children, 118 (22.6%) were pneumococcal carriers. Being≥2years old, attending childcare center, presenting with any symptoms, having acute or chronic respiratory disease, and residing in a slum were associated with pneumococcal carriage. The most prevalent capsular types were 6C (14.5%), 15B/C (11.5%), 11A/D (9.2%), and 6A (7.6%). PCV10 serotypes represented 2.5%. All isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) comprised 39%, with penicillin and ceftriaxone MICs ranging from 0.12-8.0μg/ml and 0.012-1.0μg/ml, respectively. The 33 (28%) erythromycin-resistant isolates (MICs of 1.5 to >256μg/ml) displayed the cMLSB (72.7%) or M (27.3%) phenotypes, harboring the erm(B) and/or mef(A/E) genes. High non-susceptibility rates (>20%) to clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline were largely explained by the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) serotype 6C isolates. CONCLUSIONS Effects of universal childhood PCV10 use on carriage were evident, with the near elimination of PCV10 serotypes. The emergence of MDR serotype 6C isolates, however, is a concern. Ongoing surveillance to monitor serotype 6C increase in invasive diseases is warranted.
Tatiana C. A. Pinto, Natalia S. Costa, Luciana F. S. Castro, Rachel L. Ribeiro, Ana Caroline N. Botelho, Felipe P. G. Neves, Jose Mauro Peralta, and Lucia M. Teixeira
Scientific Reports, eISSN: 20452322, Published: 28 March 2017 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Streptococcus pneumoniae can be classified in more than 90 capsular types, as traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR-based techniques. Such methods, however, can be expensive, laborious or unable to accurately discriminate among certain serotypes. Therefore, determination of capsular types, although extremely important for epidemiological purposes and for estimating the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, is mainly restricted to research laboratories, being rarely performed in the clinical setting. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as an alternative tool to characterize 416 pneumococcal isolates belonging to serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, 9N, 9V or 14. For MALDI-TOF MS analysis, each isolate was submitted to an extraction protocol using formic acid and acetonitrile. Measurements were performed with a Bruker Microflex LT mass spectrometer using default parameters and generating spectra in the range of 2,000-20,000 m/z. Spectra were analyzed with the BioNumerics software v7.6. Isolates were mainly distributed according to the capsular type in a Neighbor Joining tree and serotypes investigated were successfully discriminated by the presence/absence of 14 selected biomarkers. The results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative for typing pneumococcal strains, highlighting its usefulness for rapid and cost-effective routine application in clinical laboratories.
Robert E. Snyder, Claire E. Boone, Claudete A. Araújo Cardoso, Fabio Aguiar-Alves, Felipe P. G. Neves, and Lee W. Riley
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN: 19352727, eISSN: 19352735, Published: 23 March 2017 Public Library of Science (PLoS)
1 Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America, 2 Maternal and Child Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 Pathology Program, Laboratório Universitário Rodolpho Albino, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Biomedical Institute, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Nayara Torres Cardoso, Bárbara Araújo Santos, André Victor Barbosa, Silvana Vargas Superti, Lúcia Martins Teixeira, and Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, ISSN: 07328893, eISSN: 18790070, Pages: 281-285, Published: 1 March 2017 Elsevier BV
We sought to characterize pneumococcal isolates associated with bacteremia, pneumonia and meningitis in cancer patients and to estimate the coverage of the available pneumococcal vaccines. Fifty isolates recovered from 49 patients attending a cancer reference center over a 1-year period were analyzed. The prevalent serotypes were: 23F (12%), 6A (8%), 3, 4, 20, and 23A (6% each). All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Resistance or reduced susceptibility to penicillin made up 14%, and one isolate was also intermediately resistant to ceftriaxone. The three (6%) erythromycin-resistant isolates presented the M or cMLSB phenotypes and harbored the mef(A/E) gene exclusively or along with the erm(B) gene. Twenty-two (44%) isolates were closely related to 11 international clones, being strongly associated with penicillin non-susceptibility. Combined immunization with the 13-valent conjugate and the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccines might contribute to reduce (76%) the burden of the pneumococcal infections in the population investigated.
Ledy Horto Santos Oliveira, Larissa Silva Santos, Carolina Oliveira Silva, Everton Faccini Augusto, and Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 14138670, eISSN: 16784391, Pages: 88-91, Published: 1 January 2017 Elsevier BV
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program.
Muniqui S. Capett, Patricia Vollú-Silva, Vanessa A. Melchiades, Luciana C. Bokehi, Fernanda M. Araújo, Ianick Souto Martins, Felipe P. G. Neves, Alice G. M. Gonzalez, Eric Oswald, Geraldo R. de Paula, and Lenise A. Teixeira
Current Microbiology, ISSN: 03438651, eISSN: 14320991, Pages: 624-632, Published: 1 November 2016 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
The objective of this work was to assess the genetic characteristics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, ciprofloxacin resistance or susceptibility, obtained from patients with gynecological cancer and urinary tract infection (UTI). Seventy-seven E. coli ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates and 38 ciprofloxacin-susceptible were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the phylogenetic groups, virulence factors as iucC, fyuA, hlyC, cnf1 genes, and pks pathogenicity island. The presence of genes related to ciprofloxacin resistance such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and qepA, and the sequencing of DNA gyrase genes and topoisomerase IV were determined. The genetic profile of the isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test and Chi-square test. Phylogenetic group B2 was the most prevalent although a great genetic diversity was observed by PFGE. Only genes associated to siderophores were found in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates; however, in ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates, genes related to siderophores and toxin, were detected. Additionally qnrB was detected in both populations, ciprofloxacin resistant and susceptible. DNA mutations in gyrA were Ser-83-Leu and Asp-87-Asn and in parC were Ser-80-Ile and Glu-84-Val, Glu-84-Lys. In conclusion, it was observed a high prevalence of qnrB in the population studied; in addition, it was the first time the pks island was observed only in ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates.
M.S. Xavier, C.N. Fonseca, R.F. Ferreira, T.X. Castro, F.P.G. Neves, A.V. Barbosa, A.M.F. Cerqueira, and N.R.P. Almosny
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, ISSN: 01020935, eISSN: 16784162, Pages: 1197-1200, Published: 2015 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
This report aimed to study the interference in molecular testing for Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in blood of 155 dogs from the coastal region of Rio de Janeiro. Five Anaplasmataceae positive samples but negative for E. canis and A. platys, from microfilaremic animals, were chosen for sequencing. These sequences, when compared to Gen et Bank database, showed 88% to 100% similarity with Wolbachia spp. denoting an interference in the detection of DNA from other members of Anaplasmataceae, possibly due to a high concentration of Wolbachia spp. DNA.
Glauber P Arêas, Rôde BB Schuab, Felipe PG Neves, and Rosana R Barros
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, ISSN: 00740276, eISSN: 16788060, Volume: 109, Pages: 935-939, Published: 1 November 2014 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.
Renata Fernandes Ferreira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo Cerqueira, Tatiana Xavier de Castro, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, André Victor Barbosa, Daniel de Barros Macieira, and Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria, ISSN: 0103846X, Pages: 301-308, Published: 2014 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
The aim of this study was to characterize Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, all the clinical and hematological findings observed in these dogs were reported. PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used for diagnostic purposes, and the TRP19 and TRP36 genes were sequenced to evaluate the genetic diversity. Fifteen samples were positive for E. canis. The polymerase chain reaction for the TRP19 gene resulted in 11 amplicons (11/15), which were cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector for sequencing. The complete sequence of TRP19 gene was compared to those in the GenBank, revealing high identicalness. Phylogenetic analysis on the TRP36 gene sequences demonstrated two distinct strains from two dogs, named 56C and 70C. The 56C strain was grouped with the strain Cuiaba 16, which is a hybrid strain formed by Brazilian and US genogroups; and the 70C strain was grouped with other strains of the US genogroup, thus suggesting that there are at least two genogroups of E. canis in Rio de Janeiro (US and Brazilian). Those animals, in which the 70C and 56C strains were isolated, showed distinct clinical and hematological manifestations of 1the disease. The appearance of different genotypes may express new phenotypes, thus resulting in different forms of presentation of the disease and making its diagnosis more complex.
Danielle Ferreira Lima, Nathalia Brito Veloso Brazão, Tania Wrobel Folescu, Felipe Piedade Neves, Alex Guerra Ferreira, Erica Aparecida Santos, Elizabeth Andrade Marques, and Robson Souza Leão
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, ISSN: 07328893, eISSN: 18790070, Pages: 59-62, Published: January 2014 Elsevier BV
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report a molecular characterization, antimicrobial resistance, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene detection of MRSA strains from 28 Brazilian pediatric CF patients (1 strain per patient). A significant proportion (50%) of MRSA SCCmec IV isolates was observed. Nearly half of MRSA strains harboring the PVL genes distributed in all SCCmec types detected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses showed majority (57.1%) of the isolates belonged to known epidemic lineages, such as UK/EMRSA-3, Pediatric/USA 800, Southwest Pacific clone, and Brazilian/Hungarian clone. To our knowledge, this is the first Brazilian study of molecular epidemiology based on MLST and SCCmec typing and the first description of PVL genes in MRSA from CF patients.
P. H. C. Candido, L. d. S. Nunes, E. A. Marques, T. W. Folescu, F. S. Coelho, V. C. N. de Moura, M. G. da Silva, K. M. Gomes, M. C. d. S. Lourenco, F. S. Aguiar, F. Chitolina, D. T. Armstrong, S. C. Leao, F. P. G. Neves, F. C. d. Q. Mello, and R. S. Duarte
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN: 00951137, eISSN: 1098660X, Pages: 2990-2997, Published: August 2014 American Society for Microbiology
Worldwide, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have become emergent pathogens of pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 5 to 20%. This work investigated the presence of NTM in sputum samples of 129 CF patients (2 to 18 years old) submitted to longitudinal clinical supervision at a regional reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June 2009 to March 2012, 36 NTM isolates recovered from 10 (7.75%) out of 129 children were obtained. Molecular identification of NTM was performed by using PCR restriction analysis targeting the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) and sequencing of the rpoB gene, and susceptibility tests were performed that followed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. For evaluating the genotypic diversity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and/or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) was performed. The species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii (n = 24), M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (n = 6), Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 3), Mycobacterium marseillense (n = 2), and Mycobacterium timonense (n = 1). Most of the isolates presented resistance to five or more of the antimicrobials tested. Typing profiles were mainly patient specific. The PFGE profiles indicated the presence of two clonal groups for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and five clonal groups for M. abscesssus subsp. bolletii, with just one clone detected in two patients. Given the observed multidrug resistance patterns and the possibility of transmission between patients, we suggest the implementation of continuous and routine investigation of NTM infection or colonization in CF patients, including countries with a high burden of tuberculosis disease.
Viviane C. Souza, Fabíola C. O. Kegele, Selma R. Souza, Felipe P. G. Neves, Geraldo R. de Paula, and Rosana R. Barros
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 00365548, eISSN: 16511980, Pages: 780-785, Published: October 2013 Informa UK Limited
BACKGROUND Streptococcus agalactiae is known to be the major cause of neonatal infections and also causes complications during pregnancy. METHODS One hundred and six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from clinical specimens of newborns (n = 18) and pregnant women (n = 88) were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and investigation of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance, capsular type, and virulence factors. Genetic diversity was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. RESULTS Strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G, and vancomycin and resistant to tetracycline (85.8%) and erythromycin (4.7%). Erythromycin-resistant strains presented iMLSB phenotype, harbored the ermA gene, and were closely related by PFGE. Both bac and bca genes were found in low frequencies. PFGE analysis yielded 11 DNA restriction profiles among 35 selected isolates. The major clonal group, designated as A, was composed predominantly of strains belonging to capsular type Ia. Clonal group B was composed predominantly of strains with capsular type V, including all erythromycin-resistant isolates. CONCLUSIONS Although low levels of erythromycin resistance have been observed, this is a fact of concern because this phenotype also confers resistance to clindamycin, an alternative agent for intrapartum prophylaxis. Despite the diversity of capsular types, Ia and V were among the most common and were significantly associated with distinct clonal groups. In a few cases, different capsular types were clustered into a single clonal group, which may be related to capsular switching.
T. C. A. Pinto, A. R. V. Souza, S. E. C. M. de Pina, N. S. Costa, A. A. Borges Neto, F. P. G. Neves, V. L. C. Merquior, C. A. G. Dias, J. M. Peralta, and L. M. Teixeira
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN: 00951137, eISSN: 1098660X, Pages: 3242-3249, Published: October 2013 American Society for Microbiology
Optochin (Opt) susceptibility is used largely for the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories. Opt-resistant (Opt(r)) S. pneumoniae isolates have been reported, however, indicating the potential for misidentification of this important pathogen. Point mutations in the atpC gene have been associated with the emergence of Opt(r) S. pneumoniae, but data on the characterization of such atypical variants of S. pneumoniae are still limited. The present report describes the results of a polyphasic approach to identifying and characterizing 26 Opt(r) S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from patients or carriers living in Brazil. Sixteen isolates consisted of heterogeneous populations, and 10 isolates were homogeneously Opt(r). The isolates had different serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. They also presented diverse genetic characteristics, as indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and pspA gene typing. Except for Opt MICs (4- to 64-fold higher among Opt(r) variants), Opt(r) and Opt-susceptible (Opt(s)) subpopulations originating from the same culture had identical characteristics. Sequencing of the atpC gene of the Opt(r) variants revealed 13 different nucleotide changes distributed among eight different codons. Changes in codon 49 were the most frequent, suggesting that this might be a hot spot for optochin resistance-conferring mutations. On the other hand, five novel types of mutations in the atpC gene (Met13Ile, Gly18Ser, Gly20Ala, Ala31Val, and Ala49Gly) were identified. In silico prediction modeling indicated that the atpC gene mutations corresponded to alterations in the transmembrane region of the ATPase, leading to a higher hydrophobicity profile in α-helix 1 and to a lower hydrophobicity profile in α-helix 2.
Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto, Mariane Alves Corrêa, Roberta dos Anjos Barreto, Laís de Souza Gouveia Moreira, Havana Gomes Rodrigues, Claudete Araújo Cardoso, Rosana Rocha Barros, and Lúcia Martins Teixeira
BMC Infectious Diseases, eISSN: 14712334, Published: 13 July 2013 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
BackgroundStreptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases, and infants and young children are considered to be the main reservoir of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates and characteristics associated with nasopharyngeal carriage, the distribution of serotypes and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in a large metropolitan area in Brazil before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.MethodsBetween March and June 2010, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one day care center and the emergency room of a pediatric hospital. Pneumococcal isolates were identified by conventional methods and serotypes were determined by a sequential multiplex PCR assay and/or the Quellung reaction. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pneumococci were assessed by the disk diffusion method. MICs for erythromycin and penicillin were also performed. Erythromycin resistance genes were investigated by PCR.ResultsThe overall colonization rate was 49.2% and it was considerably higher among children in the day care center. Pneumococcal carriage was more common among day care attenders and cohabitants with young siblings. The most prevalent serotypes were 6B, 19F, 6A, 14, 15C and 23F, which accounted for 61.2% of the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, levofloxacin, rifampicin and vancomycin. The highest rate of non-susceptibility was observed for sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (51.2%). Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) accounted for 27.3% of the isolates (MICs of 0.12-4 μg/ml). Penicillin non-susceptibility was strongly associated with serotypes 14 and 23F. Hospital attendance and the presence of respiratory or general symptoms were frequently associated with PNSP carriage. The two erythromycin-resistant isolates (MICs of 2 and 4 μg/ml) belonged to serotype 6A, presented the M phenotype and harbored the mef(A/E) gene.ConclusionsCorrelations between serotypes, settings and penicillin non-susceptibility were observed. Serotypes coverage projected for the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was low (45.5%), but pointed out the potential reduction of PNSP nasopharyngeal colonization by nearly 20%.
Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Joaquim dos Santos-Filho, Geraldo Renato de Paula, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Walter Martin Roland Oelemann, and Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
Anaerobe, ISSN: 10759964, eISSN: 10958274, Pages: 58-61, Published: February 2013 Elsevier BV
In the past few years, many studies revealed a remarkable genetic variability in Bacteroides fragilis species, and the existence of two divisions was proposed according to presence or absence of the cfiA (metallo-β-lactamase/carbapenemase) gene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of DNA sequence analysis for glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and esterase (est) metabolic genes, in comparison to RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) and 16S ribosomal RNA (rrs) gene sequencing, to identify the presence of these two groups in seventeen B. fragilis strains. Based on phylogenetic trees, only the est gene sequences generated a classification similar to rrs- and rpoB-genes. On the other hand, the genes pgm and gdh did not allow the discrimination of these divisions. The est gene sequence can be suggested as an additional tool for differentiation of the two groups in B. fragilis, providing highly reproducible and reliable data in B. fragilis taxonomy.
Vânia Lúcia Carreira Merquior, Adriana Rocha Faria, Filomena Soares Pereira da Rocha, Jaqueline Martins Morais, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, and Lúcia Martins Teixeira
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, ISSN: 00740276, eISSN: 16788060, Volume: 107, Pages: 557-560, Published: June 2012 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
Here we describe the detection and characterisation of three isolates of vancomycin-resistant VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates harboured the vanB1 gene. The isolates were susceptible to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and vancomycin, and showed distinct profiles of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. Analysis of the clonal relatedness of the vanB E. faecalis isolates showed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of enterococcal strains carrying vanB genes in Brazil.
Ledy H.S. Oliveira, Larissa S. Santos, Everton F. Augusto, and Felipe P.G. Neves
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN: 15671348, eISSN: 15677257, Pages: 71-76, Published: January 2012 Elsevier BV
Human papillomavirus type 53 (HPV 53), which belongs to genus Alpha, species A6, has spread among women worldwide. Although it is classified as a probably high risk type, the association between HPV 53 and the development of neoplastic cervical disease is unclear, and HPV 53 is known to be genomically diverse. We investigated 15 cases of HPV 53 genital infection in women living in the state of Rio de Janeiro that were not associated with severe intraepithelial cervical neoplasia. To trace HPV 53 variants in this geographic area, we characterized the L1, E6 and E7 genes from these isolates, and undertook a phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment of their L1 sequences. After amplification and sequence analysis, we identified seven different L1-E6-E7 variants and a L1 co-infected isolate, which taken together had base pair changes at 29 different positions. The co-infected sample presented overlapped peaks at two positions. We also detected two new E6 genomic variants. Several base pair changes in the E6 region resulted in amino acid changes, three of which were non-conservative. The E7 gene was the most conserved sequence among those studied; in contrast, the E6 sequence reached a maximum difference of 2.79%. None of the HPV 53 isolates corresponded to the reference type. Dichotomical branching characteristic of HPV 53 was observed in all of the trees constructed, as well as in the concatenated phylogenetic tree. Probably, these variants pointing to evolutionary process, but they not appear to keep an increasing of pathogenesis Despite the limited number of samples analyzed in our work, we noticed that the same variant was found in more than one woman. Therefore, it is possible that such variants have been circulating in the female population in the state of Rio de Janeiro for a longer time or that due to host or genetic viral factors, these variants can spread more rapidly than others.
Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Roberta Ferreira Caboclo, Milena Borgo Azevedo, Ariane Guimarães Barcellos, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues, and Kátia Regina Netto dos Santos
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, ISSN: 07328893, eISSN: 18790070, Pages: 32-40, Published: January 2012 Elsevier BV
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, mostly associated with the use of medical devices in seriously ill or immunocompromised patients. Currently, the characteristics of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) isolates from Rio de Janeiro hospitals are unknown. In this study, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) types, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, biofilm formation genes, and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were investigated in 35 MRSE clinical isolates. The collection of isolates was previously well characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) into 2 main genotypes (A and B, 22 isolates) and 10 sporadic genotypes (13 isolates). MLST revealed a total of 8 different sequence types (STs), but ST2 and ST23, which were icaAB-positive, represented the majority (71.4%) of MRSE isolates tested. Almost all isolates (91.4%) belonged to clonal complex 2. SCCmec types III and IV were identified among 71.4% of the isolates, while the remaining was nontypeable. The predominant MRSE genotypes were defined as SCCmec type III/ST2 (PFGE type A) and SCCmec type IV/ST23 (PFGE type B) isolates, which were both associated with high antimicrobial resistance and presence of biofilm-related genes.
A. A. Uehara, E. L. T. Amorin, M. d. F. Ferreira, C. F. Andrade, M. B. M. Clementino, I. de Filippis, F. P. G. Neves, T. d. C. A. Pinto, L. M. Teixeira, M. Giambiagi-deMarval, and S. E. L. Fracalanzza
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN: 00951137, eISSN: 1098660X, Pages: 4208-4212, Published: December 2011 American Society for Microbiology
Despite the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococci worldwide, limited reports are available from Brazilian locations. In the present study, 25 quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) strains isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods, including analysis of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. They represented 16.5% of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained during a survey performed from 2006 to 2010. A trend for increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in the period investigated. The most prevalent pattern of mutation observed among QRNG isolates, Ser-91 to Phe and Asp-95 to Gly in gyrA and Ser-87 to Arg in parC, was detected in 40% of the isolates exhibiting MICs ranging from 4 to >32 μg/ml. Rare types of mutations were found in the gyrA gene (Gln-102 to His [12%] and Asp-95 to Tyr [4%]) and in the parC gene (Ser-88 to Thr [4%]). The genetic relationship of the QRNG isolates, evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggested that the increase in the frequencies of the QRNG isolates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, may have arisen as a result of simultaneous spread of two clonal groups. The results also indicate that fluoroquinolones may no longer be used as first line antibiotics for the treatment of gonorrhea in Rio de Janeiro, and that programs for antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae should also be implemented in other regions of Brazil.
Priscila AM Nakamura, Rôde Beatriz B Schuab, Felipe PG Neves, Cláudio FA Pereira, Geraldo R de Paula, and Rosana R Barros
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, ISSN: 00740276, eISSN: 16788060, Volume: 106, Pages: 119-122, Published: March 2011 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
In this study, 100 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from genitourinary tract specimens of non-pregnant individuals living in Rio de Janeiro were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of macrolide resistance genes and evaluation of the genetic diversity of erythromycin-resistant isolates. By agar diffusion method, all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, penicillin and vancomycin. Isolates were resistant to levofloxacin (1%), clindamycin (5%), erythromycin (11%) and tetracycline (83%) and were intermediated to erythromycin (4%) and tetracycline (6%). Erythromycin-resistant and intermediated isolates presented the following phenotypes: M (n = 3), constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B, n = 5) and inductive MLS B (n = 7). Determinants of macrolide resistance genes, erm and mef, were detected in isolates presenting MLS B and M phenotypes, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of erythromycin-resistant isolates were clustered into two major groups of similarity.
PLoS Pathogens, ISSN: 15537366, eISSN: 15537374, Pages: 1-16, Published: April 2010
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 14138670, Pages: 54-59, Published: Jan. / Feb. 2010
Felipe P.G. Neves, Rachel L. Ribeiro, Rafael S. Duarte, Lucia M. Teixeira, and Vânia L.C. Merquior
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, ISSN: 09248579, Pages: 211-215, Published: March 2009 Elsevier BV
We describe the characteristics of seven unusual isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carrying both the vanC1 and vanA genes that were detected during a 3-month survey carried out to investigate the occurrence of faecal carriage of VRE. The isolates were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum and showed high-level resistance to both vancomycin and teicoplanin (minimum inhibitory concentrations >256 microg/mL and 64-96 microg/mL, respectively). All seven isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and high levels of gentamicin, and showed intermediate susceptibility to both quinolones tested (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin). Susceptibility to fosfomycin, rifampicin and tetracycline varied among isolates. High-level resistance to gentamicin was associated with the aac(6')-aph(2'') gene, and resistance to erythromycin was associated with the erm(B) gene. The seven vanA-carrying E. gallinarum isolates had similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. The emergence of multiple antimicrobial resistance, including high-level resistance to glycopeptides, among E. gallinarum points out the need to increase awareness for detection and proper characterisation of these microorganisms, as they may represent potential reservoirs of transmissible, clinically significant resistance genes in nosocomial settings.
V. L. C. Merquior, F. P. Goncalves Neves, R. L. Ribeiro, R. S. Duarte, E. de Andrade Marques, and L. M. Teixeira
Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN: 00222615, Pages: 244-245, Published: February 2008 Microbiology Society
A case of a post-surgical patient who developed a fatal bloodstream infection caused by high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum is reported. The isolate was found to carry both the vanC1 and vanA genes. This is the first report of an invasive infection associated with a vanA E. gallinarum isolate in Brazil.