Assistant Professor, Agriculture and Biology Research division
National Research Centre, Egypt
Nafisa A. Abd El- Azeem, Mahmoud Madkour, Nesrein M. Hashem, and Mahmoud Alagawany Informa UK Limited
Mahmoud Madkour, Waleid M. E. Shakweer, Nesrein M. Hashem, Osama Aboelazab, Eman Younis, Nafisa Abd El‐Azeem, and Mohamed Shourrap Wiley
Early life heat stress negatively affects rabbit production and well-being. However, the physiological response to acute heat stress in later life is not clearly defined. The present study aims to investigate the effects of early and late heat stress at 36°C on some blood constituents, antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood, and muscle in New Zealand white and Baladi Black rabbits. A total of sixty post-weaning rabbits of each breed were randomly divided into two groups; control groups (NZWC and BBC) and early heat-stressed groups for six hours at 36 ± 1°C and 62% relative humidity (RH) (NZWT and BBT groups). After heat stress, six rabbits from each group were slaughtered for blood and muscle tissue collection. The surviving rabbits were kept at 28 ± 1°C and 40% RH till 13 weeks of age. At the end of 13 weeks, all rabbits were exposed to late heat stress as precious described to perform four groups: single late stressed groups; NZWC2, BBC2, and double stressed groups; NZWT2 and BBT2. After late heat stress, six rabbits from each group were slaughtered for blood and muscle tissue collection. The early and late heat stress caused a significant reduction in the blood creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-density lipoprotein and antioxidant enzymes' activity in blood and muscle of both NZW and BB rabbits compared with the control groups. While, the blood total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids levels, and lipid peroxidation activity in blood and muscle were significantly increased due to the early and late heat-stressed both breeds compared with the control groups. It could be concluded that the early heat stress at 36°C has negative effects on several physiological indicators and antioxidant activities in the blood and muscle of NZW and BB rabbits.
Mahmoud Madkour, Osama Aboelazab, Nafisa Abd El‐Azeem, Eman Younis, and Mohamed Shourrap Wiley
There are little data about antioxidants' status responses to early thermal conditioning (TC) on broiler chickens. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the different time ages of thermal conditioning on antioxidants responses and the growth rate of broiler chicks. A total of two hundred forty-one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) weighed on average 51.5 ± 0.5g were randomly distributed into four equal groups (60 chicks each), and chicks of each group were ranked in five replicates. The first group reared under the ambient temperature, while the second, third and fourth groups (TC3, TC5 and TC7) were subjected to early-age thermal conditioning at 39°C for 6 h on the third, fifth and seventh day of age respectively. Broilers were fed ad-libitum, and drinking water was a free choice during the experimental period. At the end of the experimental period that lasted 5 weeks, all experimental groups were exposed to heat challenge at 36°C for 6 h. Early-age thermal conditioning did not affect growth performance. Plasma corticosterone elevation in TC5 (as a post-challenge response) was the lowest among the experimental groups. Hepatic malondialdehyde significantly increased in TC5 and TC7 groups both at the post-conditioning stage and at the end of the experimental period. Hepatic glutathione, glutathione S-transferases, catalase and superoxide dismutase significantly decreased by early-age thermal conditioning compared with non-conditioned broilers. Microscopic examination of the liver sections from broilers chickens in TC5 and TC7 groups showed all the basic features of normal liver tissue, while the control and TC3 groups showed few necrotic areas. It could be concluded that early-age thermal conditioning at 39°C for 6 h on the fifth day of age could improve the antioxidant defence system of broilers without any adverse effects on growth performance.
Mohamed S. El-Kholy, Mohamed M. El-Mekkawy, Mahmoud Madkour, Nafisa Abd El-Azeem, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Laila A. Mohamed, Mahmoud Alagawany, and Dina A. Selim Informa UK Limited
The present work was conducted to assess the effect of diets supplementation to heat-stressed buck rabbits with different zinc (Zn) sources on the thermoregulatory and hematobiochemical parameters, and antioxidant status. A total of 24 mature buck rabbits (32-36 weeks of age) were randomly distributed into four groups (6 each). Group 1, non-heat-stressed control (NHSC), was reared in the absence of heat stress (HS) conditions and received the basal diet only. The other three groups (groups 2, 3 and 4) were kept in HS conditions. Group 2, heat-stressed control (HSC), received the basal diet only. The diet supplemented with 75 mg Zn/kg diet either in the inorganic form (Zn sulfate) or in the organic form (Zn picolinate) for groups 3 and 4, respectively. Zn supplementation to rabbits' diets lowered the heat stress-related increase of serum urea, alanine transaminase and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. These supplementations also increased the concentration of testosterone under HS conditions. Zn picolinate was more effective than Zn sulfate in restoring serum concentrations of urea, testosterone, and MDA. In conclusion, Zn addition to rabbits' diets from different sources, especially Zn picolinate, exhibits an ameliorative effect against the harmful impact of HS on hematobiochemical parameters and antioxidant status.
S.A. El-Safty, A. Galal, G.M. El-Gendi, Nafisa A. Abd El-Azeem, M.A. Ghazaly, and A.Y.M. Abdelhady Elsevier BV
Fayiz M. Reda, Mahmoud Madkour, Nafisa Abd El-Azeem, Osama Aboelazab, Sarah Y.A. Ahmed, and Mahmoud Alagawany Elsevier BV
H. Hassan, A. Samy, A. Youssef, N. A. El-Azeem, M. Madkour, O. Aboelazab, M. Shourrap and M. Mohamed Unique Scientific Publishers
Effect of using inorganic and organic trace minerals premix on performance, carcass and tibia bone characteristics and histological structure of ileum, liver and tibia bone of broiler chicks were investigated. A starter (1-21 d) and a grower (22-35 d) corn-soybean meal diets were supplemented with inorganic trace mineral premix ITM (T1), organic trace mineral premix OTM (T2) or ITM + OTM (T3). The organic mineral premix was of lower element concentrations compared with the inorganic premix. A total of 150 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were distributed into three dietary treatments (5 replicates x 10 chicks each). The results showed no significant effect of dietary treatments on body weight gain and feed intake of broiler chickens. Birds fed organic trace minerals showed significant better feed conversion ratio than that of inorganic trace minerals. Organic trace minerals did not significantly affect carcass characteristics or tibia bone measurements except tibia ash%. Histological analysis of ileum revealed that, broiler chicks fed diets with organic minerals significantly decreased the length and crypt depth of villi. The liver tissue and tibia bone were healthy and normal in all experimental groups. It could be concluded that organic trace minerals can be used at lower levels than the recommended levels of inorganic trace minerals not only without a negative impact on performance, but may lead to improve feed efficiency, intestinal and bone histology. Further studies, using other parameters, are needed to prove the impact of different organic minerals sources and levels upon poultry production and environmental pollution.
Mahmoud Madkour, Mohamad M. Aboelenin, Osama Aboelazab, Ahmed A. Elolimy, Nafisa Abd El-Azeem, Mohamed S. El-Kholy, Mahmoud Alagawany, and Mohamed Shourrap Informa UK Limited
Early-life thermal conditioning (TC) in broiler chickens has long-lasting impacts on later life. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism by which TC impacts the hepatic expre...
H.M.A. Hassan, M.M. El-Moniary, Y. Hamouda, Eman F. El-Daly, Amani W. Youssef, and Nafisa A. Abd El-Aze Science Alert
Nafisa A. Abd El-Aze, Eman F. El-Daly, H.M.A. Hassan, Amani W. Youssef, and M.A. Mohamed Science Alert
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding different commercial preparations of direct-fed microbials (DFM) used as growth promoters on weight and histology of immune related organs (bursa, thymus and spleen) in broilers. Two hundred unsexed 10 days old Cobb broiler chicks were individually weighed and divided into 4 groups (5 replicates of 10 chicks, each) and fed 4 different experimental diets. A mixture of Enterococcus faecium (Protexin , DFM1), a mixture of Bacillus subtilis ® (Clostat , DFM2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with its fermentation metabolites (Diamond , ® ® DFM3) were supplemented to broiler diets and compared with the basal diet which served as control. Bursa, thymus and spleen were taken from birds at 36 days of age. The results showed significant (P<0.01) increase in spleen and bursa weight (relative to live body weight) in birds fed DFM supplemented diets compared with those fed the control diet of no supplement. Addition of DFM enhanced the activity of bursal follicles and may improve the bursa activity and caused improvement in thymus and spleen structure compared with the control. In conclusion, DFM supplemental levels have stimulated some histological change in the immune related organs which may result in improvement of chick immunity.
M.A. Mohamed, Eman F. El- Daly, Nafisa A. Abd El- Azeem, Amani W. Youssef, and H.M.A. Hassan Science Alert
An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of using organic acids as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter on performance of broiler chicks. Carcass characteristics, histological changes of ileum and immune related organs (bursa, thymus and spleen) along with intestinal bacteria count were also studied. A number of 150 Cobb broiler chicks were fed on three dietary treatments: a basal cornsoybean meal diet served as a control treatment with no supplements or supplemented with either 0.025% Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylat (BMD, antibiotic) or 0.06% Galliacid (organic acids) from 10 to 36 days of ® age. The results showed that birds fed antibiotic or organic acids gained significant (p<0.05) more body weight than those fed the control diet. No significant differences were detected among treatments on feed intake while feed conversion ratio (FCR) values were significantly (p<0.001) differ. Addition of organic acids or antibiotic did improve FCR by about 9 and 4%, respectively. These results indicated that birds fed either organic acids or antibiotic supplemented diets utilized feed more efficiently than those fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics were not affected by dietary treatments, while the addition of antibiotic or organic acids significantly (p<0.01) increased spleen and bursa weight (% live body weight). Addition of organic acids was more effective than antibiotic on decreasing intestinal count of Escherichia coli and appearance of Colostridium perfringers. Organic acids as alternative to the antibiotic growth promoter have stimulated some histological change in histology of the villi and the immune related organs. Performance and feed efficiency are closely interrelated with the quantitative microbial load of the gut, the morphological structure of the intestinal wall and the activity of the immune system. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of organic acids increased growth performance and improved intestinal health and morphology of broiler chicks. It could be successfully used as alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets or as a tool of controlling intestinal pathogenic bacteria.
H.M.A. Hassan, Amani W. Youssef, Eman F. El- Daly, Nafisa A. Abd El- Azeem, Eman R. Hassan, and M.A. Mohamed Science Alert
A.W. Youssef, N.A. Abd El-Aze, E.F. El-Daly, and M.M. El-Monairy Science Alert
Amani W. Youssef, Eman F. El-Daly, Nafisa A. Abd El-, and M.M. El-Monairy Science Alert