Ashok Pandey

Researcher, Research
Public Health Research Society Nepal





Scopus Publications

Scopus Publications

  • Global, regional, and national burden of disorders affecting the nervous system, 1990–2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    Jaimie D Steinmetz, Katrin Maria Seeher, Nicoline Schiess, Emma Nichols, Bochen Cao, Chiara Servili, Vanessa Cavallera, Ewerton Cousin, Hailey Hagins, Madeline E Moberg,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Temporal patterns of cancer burden in Asia, 1990–2019: a systematic examination for the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study
    Rajesh Sharma, Hedayat Abbastabar, Deldar Morad Abdulah, Hassan Abidi, Hassan Abolhassani, Zahra Abrehdari-Tafreshi, Abdorrahim Absalan, Hiwa Abubaker Ali, Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Juan Manuel Acuna,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Global age-sex-specific mortality, life expectancy, and population estimates in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1950–2021, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    Austin E Schumacher, Hmwe Hmwe Kyu, Amirali Aali, Cristiana Abbafati, Jaffar Abbas, Rouzbeh Abbasgholizadeh, Madineh Akram Abbasi, Mohammadreza Abbasian, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Michael Abdelmasseh,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Global, regional, and national mortality due to unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, 2000–2021: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    Madeline E Moberg, Erin B Hamilton, Scott M Zeng, Dana Bryazka, Jeff T Zhao, Rachel Feldman, Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Ame Mehadi Abdurehman, Aidin Abedi,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Physical, mental and social status after COVID-19 recovery in Nepal: A mixed method study
    Sashi Silwal, Kristina Parajuli, Astha Acharya, Ajnish Ghimire, Savita Pandey, Ashok Pandey, Anil Poudyal, Bihungum Bista, Pradip Gyanwali, and Meghnath Dhimal

    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Background Nepal has been devastated by an unprecedented COVID-19 outbreak, affecting people emotionally, physically, and socially, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 10% of COVID-19 affected people have symptoms that last more than 3–4 weeks and experience numerous symptoms causing an impact on everyday functioning, social, and cognitive function. Thus, it is vital to know about the recovered patient’s health status and undertake rigorous examinations to detect and treat infections. Hence, this study aims to assess the health status of COVID-19 post-recovery patients in Nepal. Method A descriptive cross-sectional mixed-method study was conducted in all seven provinces of Nepal. A total of 552 interviews were conducted for the quantitative study, and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted for the qualitative study among above 18 years COVID-19-recovered patients. The data was gathered over the phone through the purposive sampling method The results of a descriptive and thematic analysis were interpreted. Finding The majority (more than 80%) of the recovered patients could routinely perform household duties, activities outside the home, and financial job accounting. However, a few of them required assistance in carrying out all of those tasks. Prior and then after COVID-19 infection, smoking habits reduced by about one-tenth and alcohol intake decreased by a twelve percent. A qualitative finding revealed that the majority of COVID-19 symptomatic patients experienced a variety of physical symptoms such as fever, headache, body pain, fatigue, tiredness, sore throat, cough, loss of taste, loss of smell, sneezing, loss of appetite, and difficulty breathing, while others felt completely fine after being recovered. Furthermore, there was no variation in the daily functional activities of the majority of the recovered patients, while a few were found conducting fewer activities than usual because they were concerned about their health. For social health, quantitative data indicated that more than half of the participants’ social health was severely impacted. According to the IDI, the majority of the interviewees perceived society’s ignorance and misbehavior. Family members were the most often solicited sources of support. Some participants got care and assistance, but the majority did not get affection or love from their relatives. Moreover, regarding mental health, 15 percent of participants had repeated disturbing and unwanted thoughts about COVID-19 after being recovered, 16 percent tried to avoid information on COVID-19 and 7 .7 percent of people had unfavorable ideas or sentiments about themselves. More than 16 percent of participants reported feeling some level of stress related to the workplace and home. While in-depth interviews participants revealed that COVID-infected patients who were asymptomatic didn’t experience any emotional change in them but recovered patients who are symptomatic symptoms had anxiety and still being conscious of COVID-19 in fear of getting infected again Additionally, it was discovered that participants’ mental health is influenced by ignorance of society, as well as by fake news posted to social media. Conclusion COVID-19 infection has had an impact on physical, mental, and social well-being. Hence, to aid in the early recovery of COVID-19 patients, provision of evaluating and reporting the clinical features, early detection and management of long COVID case is needed from the local and provincial and central government of Nepal.

  • Prevalence, years lived with disability, and trends in anaemia burden by severity and cause, 1990–2021: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    William M Gardner, Christian Razo, Theresa A McHugh, Hailey Hagins, Victor M Vilchis-Tella, Conor Hennessy, Heather Jean Taylor, Nandita Perumal, Kia Fuller, Kelly M Cercy,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Global, regional, and national burden of diabetes from 1990 to 2021, with projections of prevalence to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
    Kanyin Liane Ong, Lauryn K Stafford, Susan A McLaughlin, Edward J Boyko, Stein Emil Vollset, Amanda E Smith, Bronte E Dalton, Joe Duprey, Jessica A Cruz, Hailey Hagins,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Health Status and Management Practices of Home Isolated COVID-19 Adult Patients
    K. Parajuli, Sashi Silwal, Astha Acharya, Anil Poudyal, Neelam Dhakal, Ashok Pandey, Tamanna Neupane, Bihungum Bista, Meghnath Dhimal and Pradip Gyanwali

    BACKGROUND The worldwide containment strategy for COVID-19 outbreak includes laboratory-confirmed cases, and their isolation and management in health care institutions or at home. The spread of the COVID-19 virus has mandated home isolation for mild cases, as recommended by the Government of Nepal. Isolation is a situation that can have a substantial influence on physical and mental health of isolated people. This study is aimed to assess physical and mental well-being of COVID-19 home isolated patients, and their home management practices. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional research using quantitative methods was carried out. Purposive sampling was used to select COVID-19 patients. Total 536 COVID-19 home isolated patients were included in this study. Telephonic interview was conducted to obtain the data. Descriptive analysis was done and interpreted. RESULTS About 34 % of the participants were symptomatic. The most common symptoms experienced were fever (22.6%), followed by cough (19.4%) and cold (16.1%). About 20 % indicated having difficulties isolating at home due to lack of separate room. Furthermore, 4 percent of the participants didn't have anyone to take care of them at home. Also almost 2 percent of participants didn't get family support when infected. Moreover, majorities of individuals had normal stress, depression and anxiety level. CONCLUSIONS Most of the participants' physical and mental health was found to be normal though some of them experienced difficulties for management during home isolation. Hence, Interventions should focus resilience building by improving communication to address fears and concerns, encouraging routines and physical activities, and taking measures to reduce loneliness.

  • Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–2018
    Emily Haeuser, Audrey L. Serfes, Michael A. Cork, Mingyou Yang, Hedayat Abbastabar, E. S. Abhilash, Maryam Adabi, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Daniel Adedayo Adeyinka,et al.

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still among the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the world is not on track to meet targets set for ending the epidemic by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Precise HIV burden information is critical for effective geographic and epidemiological targeting of prevention and treatment interventions. Age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence estimates are widely available at the national level, and region-wide local estimates were recently published for adults overall. We add further dimensionality to previous analyses by estimating HIV prevalence at local scales, stratified into sex-specific 5-year age groups for adults ages 15–59 years across SSA. Methods We analyzed data from 91 seroprevalence surveys and sentinel surveillance among antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendees using model-based geostatistical methods to produce estimates of HIV prevalence across 43 countries in SSA, from years 2000 to 2018, at a 5 × 5-km resolution and presented among second administrative level (typically districts or counties) units. Results We found substantial variation in HIV prevalence across localities, ages, and sexes that have been masked in earlier analyses. Within-country variation in prevalence in 2018 was a median 3.5 times greater across ages and sexes, compared to for all adults combined. We note large within-district prevalence differences between age groups: for men, 50% of districts displayed at least a 14-fold difference between age groups with the highest and lowest prevalence, and at least a 9-fold difference for women. Prevalence trends also varied over time; between 2000 and 2018, 70% of all districts saw a reduction in prevalence greater than five percentage points in at least one sex and age group. Meanwhile, over 30% of all districts saw at least a five percentage point prevalence increase in one or more sex and age group. Conclusions As the HIV epidemic persists and evolves in SSA, geographic and demographic shifts in prevention and treatment efforts are necessary. These estimates offer epidemiologically informative detail to better guide more targeted interventions, vital for combating HIV in SSA.

  • The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010–19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Khanh Bao Tran, Justin J Lang, Kelly Compton, Rixing Xu, Alistair R Acheson, Hannah Jacqueline Henrikson, Jonathan M Kocarnik, Louise Penberthy, Amirali Aali, Qamar Abbas,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Population-level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020
    Dana Bryazka, Marissa B Reitsma, Max G Griswold, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Zeinab Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Mohammad Abdollahi, Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • A Comparative Study on the Recording of Temperature by Thermo- Graphic Camera, Thermal Gun and Digital Clinical Thermometer in a Tertiary Hospital of Nepal
    A. Poudyal, M. Dhimal, Ram Prasad Rimal, Laxman Prasad Rimal, N. Dhakal, Ashok Pandey and P. Gyanwali

    BACKGROUND Body Temperature is one of the most common and an important sign of health and disease. Considering the need of keeping physical distance, newer methods have evolved such as; thermal imaging systems which have been used by several countries during epidemics. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare body temperatures obtained with thermo graphic camera and commercially available thermal gun with reference to standard digital clinical thermometer. METHODS The study was comparative analytical in nature and quantitative method was used to collect data. Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit were taken simultaneously using the three different thermometers in 101 patients at the outpatient fever screening clinic at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu. The Bland Altman statistical test was used to assess the concordance by the 95% limits of agreement. RESULTS The thermo-graphic camera gave concordance (limits of agreement-0.0360 to 0.0440 °F) with standard digital clinical thermometer. Similarly, commercially available thermal gun gave the concordance (limits of agreement 0.0042 to 0.1293 °F) with standard digital clinical thermometer. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study show that both thermo-graphic camera and thermal gun were found to be concordant compared to digital clinical thermometer. Therefore, it could be a preferable option for the screening of fever in mass number of individuals as part of an initial check at entry points.

  • Ordinance on the Safety and Security of Health Workers and Health Institutions in Nepal: A Critical Analysis
    P. Belbase, A. Basnet, A. Parajuli, Sudip Paudel and A. Pandey

    Violence against health workers has been considered a common issue throughout the world. The protection of health workers in low and middle-income countries such as Nepal has not been considered a serious issue by the government. But due to the surge of COVID-19 pandemic and increasing violence against health workers, commendable steps have been taken by the Government of Nepal to protect the safety and security of health workers and health institutions in Nepal. However, the question mark on effective implementation of the ordinance exits suggesting for the appropriate action from concerned authorities and strong collaboration among these sectors. Keywords: Health worker; Nepal; ordinance; safety.

  • Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Katherine R Paulson, Aruna M Kamath, Tahiya Alam, Kelly Bienhoff, Gdiom Gebreheat Abady, Jaffar Abbas, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Hedayat Abbastabar, Foad Abd-Allah, Sherief M Abd-Elsalam,et al.

    Elsevier BV
    Summary Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. Methods We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. Findings Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05–10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27–6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53–4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06–2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71–0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27–1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35–2·58; 37% [95% UI 32–43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. Interpretation Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Parkes J Kendrick, Marissa B Reitsma, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Mohammad Abdollahi, Aidin Abedi, E S Abhilash, Victor Aboyans, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Shailesh M Advani,et al.

    The Lancet Public Health Elsevier BV
    Summary Background Chewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods We estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period. Findings In 2019, 273·9 million (95% uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72% (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29% [82·15 to 84·42]) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15–19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: –1·21% [–1·26 to –1·16]), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% [0·13 to 0·79]). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant decrease in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use, which was among males between 1990 and 2019 (−0·94% [–1·72 to –0·14]), compared with nine of 12 countries that had significant decreases in the prevalence of smoking tobacco. Among females, none of these 12 countries had significant decreases in prevalence of chewing tobacco use, whereas seven of 12 countries had a significant decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking use for the period. Interpretation Chewing tobacco remains a substantial public health problem in several regions of the world, and predominantly in south Asia. We found little change in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use between 1990 and 2019, and that control efforts have had much larger effects on the prevalence of smoking tobacco use than on chewing tobacco use in some countries. Mitigating the health effects of chewing tobacco requires stronger regulations and policies that specifically target use of chewing tobacco, especially in countries with high prevalence. Funding Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Marissa B Reitsma, Parkes J Kendrick, Emad Ababneh, Cristiana Abbafati, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Aidin Abedi, E S Abhilash, Derrick Bary Abila, Victor Aboyans,et al.

    The Lancet Elsevier BV
    Summary Background Ending the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally. Methods We estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available. Findings Globally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers. Interpretation In the absence of intervention, the annual toll of 7·69 million deaths and 200 million disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking will increase over the coming decades. Substantial progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking tobacco use has been observed in countries from all regions and at all stages of development, but a large implementation gap remains for tobacco control. Countries have a clear and urgent opportunity to pass strong, evidence-based policies to accelerate reductions in the prevalence of smoking and reap massive health benefits for their citizens. Funding Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • COVID-19 Vaccine Development to Vaccination
    A. Pandey, Pradeep Belbase and Ayuska Parajuli

    In the race for a safe and effective vaccine against Coronavirus disease-19 manufacturer plays a critical role throughout the development, clinical trial, manufacturing, supply, and vaccination phases. For the efficacy of Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine, proper transport, storage, vaccine carrier, adjuvant, dosage form and route of vaccine administration plays a crucial role for immune response. In the context of no more people were willing to pay for a Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine the logistics of manufacturing, storing and distributing the vaccine, and mass vaccination are essential. It is urgent to improve health promotion and reduce the barriers to Coronavirus disease-19 vaccination. Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine development; vaccination.

  • Global burden of childhood epilepsy, intellectual disability, and sensory impairments
    Bolajoko O. Olusanya, Scott M. Wright, M.K.C. Nair, Nem-Yun Boo, Ricardo Halpern, Hannah Kuper, Amina A. Abubakar, Nihad A. Almasri, Jalal Arabloo, Narendra K. Arora,et al.

    American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
    At least 291 million children and adolescents had disabilities in 2017 globally, which is substantially higher than the GBD estimate of 93 million in 2004. BACKGROUND: Estimates of children and adolescents with disabilities worldwide are needed to inform global intervention under the disability-inclusive provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals. We sought to update the most widely reported estimate of 93 million children <15 years with disabilities from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2004. METHODS: We analyzed Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 data on the prevalence of childhood epilepsy, intellectual disability, and vision or hearing loss and on years lived with disability (YLD) derived from systematic reviews, health surveys, hospital and claims databases, cohort studies, and disease-specific registries. Point estimates of the prevalence and YLD and the 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around the estimates were assessed. RESULTS: Globally, 291.2 million (11.2%) of the 2.6 billion children and adolescents (95% UI: 249.9–335.4 million) were estimated to have 1 of the 4 specified disabilities in 2017. The prevalence of these disabilities increased with age from 6.1% among children aged <1 year to 13.9% among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. A total of 275.2 million (94.5%) lived in low- and middle-income countries, predominantly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The top 10 countries accounted for 62.3% of all children and adolescents with disabilities. These disabilities accounted for 28.9 million YLD or 19.9% of the overall 145.3 million (95% UI: 106.9–189.7) YLD from all causes among children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The number of children and adolescents with these 4 disabilities is far higher than the 2004 estimate, increases from infancy to adolescence, and accounts for a substantial proportion of all-cause YLD.

  • Key Informant Methods: An Innovative Social Mobilization Strategy to enable Communitybased Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation for People with Disability
    Ashok Pandey and Pratima Gautam

    Nepal Health Research Council
    Key informant method is an innovative technique for identifying people who are disabled in the community, by training local volunteers to act as key informants. Key informants are the local native people include teachers, village doctors, local health workers, religious leaders, community leaders, students, traditional healers, police, NGO staffs, health professionals, local journalists, village councils etc. For them, host organization organized a training to train the key informants to identify and refer the suspected disable people. The study proved key informant method as a valid method for identification of disabling children. Key informant method had a high sensitivity (average 98%) for case detection in all groups but specificity was lower (average 44%), particularly for hearing impairment. Key Informant Method can be used to collect data on types of disabilities, cause, the magnitude of impairments, severity, quantify a need for disabled people, and making access to services (including adoption, health check-up, vocational training, rehabilitation, and other facilitation training).Keywords: Bangladesh; disability; key Informant; key informant methods

  • Professional quality of life among medical doctors working in kathmandu: A descriptive cross-sectional study
    Anju Vaidya, Shristi Karki, Meghnath Dhimal, Pradip Gyanwali, Dibash Baral, Ashok Pandey, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Journal of Nepal Medical Association (JNMA)
    Introduction: The practice of medicine is an honorable profession besides being accompanied by a demanding environment. This study aimed to find out the professional quality of life of medical doctors working in Kathmandu valley.&#x0D; Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 174 Nepalese medical doctors working in different hospitals of Kathmandu valley. Ethical approval was taken from the Ethical Review Board of the Nepal Health Research Council (Reference Number: 830). The data collection tool used in the study was WHO Professional Quality of Life Scale-5 to collect data about Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary traumatic stress among medical doctors working in Kathmandu valley. Data analysis was done in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.&#x0D; Results: Out of 174 participants, 101 (58%), 126 (72.4%) and 135 (77.6%) were found to have moderate level of Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress respectively.&#x0D; Conclusions: More than half, nearly two-third, and more than two-third participants had moderate levels of Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress respectively. The overall study findings reflected good balance between Compassion satisfaction and Compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) among the Nepalese medical doctors. Further assessment of professional quality of life of doctors as well as other health care workers via Multifaceted and large-scale study is recommended.

  • Are Health Agencies Designated as Research Centers in Nepal Conducting Adequate Researches ?
    Arun Kumar Sah, Pradeep Belbase, Ashok Pandey, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Nepal Health Research Council
    Background: In Nepal, promoting quality research and enhancing research capacity is being accomplished through Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC). It also plays an authorized body to regulate, monitor and coordinate health research centers by maintaining the highest level of ethical standards. The aim of this study is to explore situation of health agencies designated as research center in Nepal.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study design was used to carry out monitoring and follow up of activities of research centre of all seven provinces of Nepal that had title “Research” in their title name from January 2018 to July 2018.Results: There were only 81 research centers in Nepal and more than half (55 percent) of these have been found in Kathmandu valley, Province 3. Research found that 82.3% so called research centers were just health service provider and 10% of research institute were research based and just 5% have the core objectives of research. Likewise, 30% of research institute were actually involved in health related researches whereas large proportion (70%) of research institute were not involved in any kind of research work. Surprisingly, only 37.5% have taken ethical approval to conduct the designated research. Conclusions: Only one tenth of the research centers have mentioned research as their core business. However, less than one third of such centers were involved in heath research, and out of which, only 28 percent took ethical permission. Most of the research organizations want to conduct research but they do not have required research skills and competent manpower to carry out research.Keywords: Health research centers; monitoring; Nepal.

  • Febrile Illness Outbreak Investigation in Sundarharicha-5 Foklan Tapu, Morang District
    Ashok Pandey, Arun Kumar Sah, Pradeep Belbase, Anil Kumar Sah, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Nepal Health Research Council
    Background: On the date of 24 July 2017, the major national daily newspaper reported that there were two death cases from an unknown disease in the Morang district, Sundarharicha Municipality 5, Foklan Tapu. A team of researcher and experts were mobilized in the affected area to investigate and identify the etiological and epidemiological causes.Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to conduct the outbreak investigation. 83 blood samples were taken from the patients and microbiological analysis was done at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu. Similarly, 2 verbal autopsies and 5 Key in-depth interviews were taken from a local community leader, local health service providers, medical officer of Koshi Zonal Hospital, district public health officer and medical director of WHO.Results: Out of 83 participants, 49% and 25% of the participants were positive to IgM and IgG antibodies of Leptospira species respectively. 87% of the participants were exposed to animal living in his/her home (including pets). Conclusions: An outbreak which was existing during this investigation turned out to be leptospirosis outbreak, whose exposure was consumption of unhealthy meat during social gathering.Keywords: Epidemiological; etiological; febrile illness; outbreak investigation.

  • Assessing Health Status of Khanigaun Village Development Committee in Nuwakot District of Nepal

  • Alcohol Use by Nepalese Women: Evidence from Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Nepal 2013

  • Socio-demographic Predictors of Tobacco Use among Women of Nepal: Evidence from Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Nepal 2013