Ashok Pandey

Verified email at gmail.com

Researcher, Research
Public Health Research Society Nepal



                                         

https://researchid.co/ashokpan

EDUCATION

MPH/BPH

11

Scopus Publications

Scopus Publications

  • A Comparative Study on the Recording of Temperature by Thermo- Graphic Camera, Thermal Gun and Digital Clinical Thermometer in a Tertiary Hospital of Nepal
    A. Poudyal, M. Dhimal, Ram Prasad Rimal, Laxman Prasad Rimal, N. Dhakal, Ashok Pandey and P. Gyanwali

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 608-612, Published: 15 December 2021
    BACKGROUND Body Temperature is one of the most common and an important sign of health and disease. Considering the need of keeping physical distance, newer methods have evolved such as; thermal imaging systems which have been used by several countries during epidemics. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare body temperatures obtained with thermo graphic camera and commercially available thermal gun with reference to standard digital clinical thermometer. METHODS The study was comparative analytical in nature and quantitative method was used to collect data. Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit were taken simultaneously using the three different thermometers in 101 patients at the outpatient fever screening clinic at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu. The Bland Altman statistical test was used to assess the concordance by the 95% limits of agreement. RESULTS The thermo-graphic camera gave concordance (limits of agreement-0.0360 to 0.0440 °F) with standard digital clinical thermometer. Similarly, commercially available thermal gun gave the concordance (limits of agreement 0.0042 to 0.1293 °F) with standard digital clinical thermometer. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study show that both thermo-graphic camera and thermal gun were found to be concordant compared to digital clinical thermometer. Therefore, it could be a preferable option for the screening of fever in mass number of individuals as part of an initial check at entry points.

  • Ordinance on the Safety and Security of Health Workers and Health Institutions in Nepal: A Critical Analysis
    P. Belbase, A. Basnet, A. Parajuli, Sudip Paudel and A. Pandey

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 408-410, Published: 6 September 2021
    Violence against health workers has been considered a common issue throughout the world. The protection of health workers in low and middle-income countries such as Nepal has not been considered a serious issue by the government. But due to the surge of COVID-19 pandemic and increasing violence against health workers, commendable steps have been taken by the Government of Nepal to protect the safety and security of health workers and health institutions in Nepal. However, the question mark on effective implementation of the ordinance exits suggesting for the appropriate action from concerned authorities and strong collaboration among these sectors. Keywords: Health worker; Nepal; ordinance; safety.

  • Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Parkes J Kendrick, Marissa B Reitsma, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Mohammad Abdollahi, Aidin Abedi, E S Abhilash, Victor Aboyans, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Shailesh M Advani, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Sohail Ahmad, Keivan Ahmadi, Haroon Ahmed, Budi Aji, Yonas Akalu, Chisom Joyqueenet Akunna, Fares Alahdab, Ziyad Al-Aly, Fahad Mashhour Alanezi, Turki M Alanzi, Khalid F Alhabib, Tilahun Ali, Sheikh Mohammad Alif, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Mahmoud A Alomari, Tarek Tawfik Amin, Saeed Amini, Hubert Amu, Robert Ancuceanu, Jason A Anderson, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Tudorel Andrei, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Benny Antony, Davood Anvari, Jalal Arabloo, Nicholas D Arian, Monika Arora, Kurnia Dwi Artanti, Wondwossen Niguse Asmare, Desta Debalkie Atnafu, Marcel Ausloos, Asma Tahir Awan, Getinet Ayano, Getie Lake Aynalem, Samad Azari, Darshan B B, Ashish D Badiye, Atif Amin Baig, Maciej Banach, Srikanta K Banerjee, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Hiba Jawdat Barqawi, Sanjay Basu, Mohsen Bayati, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma, Derrick A Bennett, Isabela M Bensenor, Habib Benzian, Catherine P Benziger, Adam E Berman, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Neeraj Bhala, Nikha Bhardwaj, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Sadia Bibi, Ali Bijani, Antonio Biondi, Dejana Braithwaite, Hermann Brenner, Andre R Brunoni, Katrin Burkart, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Zahid A Butt, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Josip Car, Giulia Carreras, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Maria Sofia Sofia Cattaruzza, Jung-Chen Chang, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Simiao Chen, Onyema greg Chido-Amajuoyi, Dinh-Toi Chu, Sheng-Chia Chung, Liliana G Ciobanu, Vera Marisa Costa, Rosa A S Couto, Baye Dagnew, Xiaochen Dai, Albertino Antonio Moura Damasceno, Giovanni Damiani, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Parnaz Daneshpajouhnejad, Jiregna Darega Gela, Meseret Derbew Molla, Abebaw Alemayehu Desta, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Meghnath Dhimal, Arielle Wilder Eagan, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Kristina Edvardsson, Andem Effiong, Maha El Tantawi, Iffat Elbarazi, Saman Esmaeilnejad, Ibtihal Fadhil, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Medhat Farwati, Farshad Farzadfar, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Valery L Feigin, Rachel Feldman, Irina Filip, Filippos Filippidis, Florian Fischer, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A Foigt, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Masoud Foroutan, Mohamed M Gad, Silvano Gallus, Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam, Birhan Gebresillassie Gebregiorgis, Lemma Getacher, Abera Getachew Obsa, Mansour Ghafourifard, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Nermin Ghith, Gabriela Fernanda Gil, Paramjit Singh Gill, Ibrahim Abdelmageed Ginawi, Salime Goharinezhad, Mahaveer Golechha, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Giuseppe Gorini, Michal Grivna, Avirup Guha, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Yuming Guo, Rajat Das Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Tarun Gupta, Vin Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Mohammad Rifat Haider, Randah R Hamadeh, Graeme J Hankey, Arief Hargono, Simon I Hay, Golnaz Heidari, Claudiu Herteliu, Kamal Hezam, Thomas R Hird, Ramesh Holla, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mihaela Hostiuc, Sorin Hostiuc, Mowafa Househ, Thomas Hsiao, Junjie Huang, Charles Ugochukwu Ibeneme, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Irena M Ilic, Milena D Ilic, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Jessica Y Islam, Rakibul M Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Farhad Islami, Hiroyasu Iso, Ramaiah Itumalla, Jalil Jaafari, Vardhmaan Jain, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Sung-In Jang, Shubha Jayaram, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Ravi Prakash Jha, Jost B Jonas, Mikk Jürisson, Ali Kabir, Zubair Kabir, Leila R Kalankesh, Tanuj Kanchan, Himal Kandel, Neeti Kapoor, André Karch, Salah Eddin Karimi, Kindie Mitiku Kebede, Bayew Kelkay, Ryan David Kennedy, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Maryam Khayamzadeh, Gyu Ri Kim, Ruth W Kimokoti, Mika Kivimäki, Soewarta Kosen, Sindhura Lakshmi Koulmane Laxminarayana, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Nuworza Kugbey, G Anil Kumar, Nithin Kumar, Om P Kurmi, Dian Kusuma, Ben Lacey, Iván Landires, Savita Lasrado, Paolo Lauriola, Doo Woong Lee, Yo Han Lee, Janni Leung, Shanshan Li, Hualiang Lin, Wei Liu, Alessandra Lugo, Shilpashree Madhava Kunjathur, Azeem Majeed, Afshin Maleki, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Abdullah A Mamun, Narayana Manjunatha, Borhan Mansouri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Santi Martini, Manu Raj Mathur, Prashant Mathur, Mohsen Mazidi, Martin McKee, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís, Suresh Mehata, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G Menezes, Bartosz Miazgowski, Irmina Maria Michalek, Ted R Miller, GK Mini, Andreea Mirica, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Hamed Mirzaei, Sanjeev Misra, Yousef Mohammad, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Shafiu Mohammed, Ali H Mokdad, Mariam Molokhia, Lorenzo Monasta, Mohammad Ali Moni, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Shane Douglas Morrison, Tilahun Belete Mossie, Sumaira Mubarik, Erin C Mullany, Christopher J L Murray, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Mohsen Naghavi, Nitish Naik, Mahdi Nalini, Vinay Nangia, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Sreenivas Narasimha Swamy, Muhammad Naveed, Javad Nazari, Sabina O Nduaguba, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Sandhya Neupane Kandel, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Yeshambel T Nigatu, Molly R Nixon, Chukwudi A Nnaji, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Christoph Nowak, Virginia Nuñez-Samudio, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, In-Hwan Oh, Andrew T Olagunju, Mayowa O Owolabi, Mahesh P A, Keyvan Pakshir, Liping Pan, Adrian Pana, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Ashok Pandey, Utsav Parekh, Eun-Cheol Park, Eun-Kee Park, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Mona Pathak, Shrikant Pawar, Richard G Pestell, Hai Quang Pham, Marina Pinheiro, Khem Narayan Pokhrel, Akram Pourshams, Akila Prashant, Amir Radfar, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Pradhum Ram, Juwel Rana, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Priya Rathi, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Reza Rawassizadeh, Andre M N Renzaho, Aziz Rezapour, Mavra A Riaz, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Ambuj Roy, Bedanta Roy, Basema Saddik, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Sana Salehi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Abdallah M Samy, Juan Sanabria, Milena M Santric-Milicevic, Bruno Piassi Sao Jose, Brijesh Sathian, Monika Sawhney, Ganesh Kumar Saya, Falk Schwendicke, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Omid Shafaat, Syed Mahboob Shah, Masood Ali Shaikh, Mohammed Shannawaz, Kiomars Sharafi, Aziz Sheikh, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Mika Shigematsu, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, K M Shivakumar, Siddharudha Shivalli, Roman Shrestha, Soraya Siabani, Negussie Boti Sidemo, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, João Pedro Silva, Ambrish Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Virendra Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Valentin Yurievich Skryabin, Anna Aleksandrovna Skryabina, Ali Soroush, Ireneous N Soyiri, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Dan J Stein, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Stefan Stortecky, Kurt Straif, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Gerhard Sulo, Johan Sundström, Takahiro Tabuchi, Eyayou Girma Tadesse, Animut Tagele Tamiru, Minale Tareke, Md Ismail Tareque, Ingan Ukur Tarigan, Bhaskar Thakur, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Rekha Thapar, Musliu Adetola Tolani, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bach Xuan Tran, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Gebiyaw Wudie Tsegaye, Hayley D Tymeson, Saif Ullah, Brigid Unim, Rachel L Updike, Olalekan A Uthman, Marco Vacante, Constantine Vardavas, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Madhur Verma, Simone Vidale, Bay Vo, Giang Thu Vu, Yasir Waheed, Yanzhong Wang, Kevin Welding, Andrea Werdecker, Joanna L Whisnant, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Befikadu Legesse Wubishet, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Yuichiro Yano, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Yigizie Yeshaw, Mohammed Zewdu Yimmer, Naohiro Yonemoto, Zabihollah Yousefi, Chuanhua Yu, Ismaeel Yunusa, Hasan Yusefzadeh, Muhammed Shahriar Zaman, Mohammad Zamani, Maryam Zamanian, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, Anasthasia Zastrozhina, Jianrong Zhang, Zhi-Jiang Zhang, Chenwen Zhong, Yves Miel H Zuniga, and Emmanuela Gakidou

    The Lancet Public Health, eISSN: 24682667, Pages: e482-e499, Published: July 2021 Elsevier BV
    Summary Background Chewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods We estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period. Findings In 2019, 273·9 million (95% uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72% (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29% [82·15 to 84·42]) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15–19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: –1·21% [–1·26 to –1·16]), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% [0·13 to 0·79]). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant decrease in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use, which was among males between 1990 and 2019 (−0·94% [–1·72 to –0·14]), compared with nine of 12 countries that had significant decreases in the prevalence of smoking tobacco. Among females, none of these 12 countries had significant decreases in prevalence of chewing tobacco use, whereas seven of 12 countries had a significant decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking use for the period. Interpretation Chewing tobacco remains a substantial public health problem in several regions of the world, and predominantly in south Asia. We found little change in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use between 1990 and 2019, and that control efforts have had much larger effects on the prevalence of smoking tobacco use than on chewing tobacco use in some countries. Mitigating the health effects of chewing tobacco requires stronger regulations and policies that specifically target use of chewing tobacco, especially in countries with high prevalence. Funding Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Marissa B Reitsma, Parkes J Kendrick, Emad Ababneh, Cristiana Abbafati, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Aidin Abedi, E S Abhilash, Derrick Bary Abila, Victor Aboyans, Niveen ME Abu-Rmeileh, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Shailesh M Advani, Mohammad Aghaali, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Sohail Ahmad, Keivan Ahmadi, Haroon Ahmed, Budi Aji, Chisom Joyqueenet Akunna, Ziyad Al-Aly, Turki M Alanzi, Khalid F Alhabib, Liaqat Ali, Sheikh Mohammad Alif, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Tarek Tawfik Amin, Saeed Amini, Hubert Amu, Gianna Gayle Herrera Amul, Robert Ancuceanu, Jason A Anderson, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Benny Antony, Davood Anvari, Jalal Arabloo, Nicholas D Arian, Monika Arora, Malke Asaad, Marcel Ausloos, Asma Tahir Awan, Getinet Ayano, Getie Lake Aynalem, Samad Azari, Darshan B B, Ashish D Badiye, Atif Amin Baig, Mohammad Hossein Bakhshaei, Maciej Banach, Palash Chandra Banik, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Hiba Jawdat Barqawi, Sanjay Basu, Mohsen Bayati, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Masoud Behzadifar, Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma, Derrick A Bennett, Isabela M Bensenor, Kathleen S Sachiko Berfield, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Nikha Bhardwaj, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Sadia Bibi, Ali Bijani, Bagas Suryo Bintoro, Antonio Biondi, Setognal Birara, Dejana Braithwaite, Hermann Brenner, Andre R Brunoni, Katrin Burkart, Zahid A Butt, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Luis Alberto Cámera, Josip Car, Rosario Cárdenas, Giulia Carreras, Juan J Carrero, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Maria Sofia Sofia Cattaruzza, Jung-Chen Chang, Simiao Chen, Dinh-Toi Chu, Sheng-Chia Chung, Massimo Cirillo, Vera Marisa Costa, Rosa A S Couto, Omid Dadras, Xiaochen Dai, Albertino Antonio Moura Damasceno, Giovanni Damiani, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Parnaz Daneshpajouhnejad, Jiregna Darega Gela, Kairat Davletov, Meseret Derbew Molla, Getenet Ayalew Dessie, Abebaw Alemayehu Desta, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Daniel Diaz, Hoa Thi Do, Abdel Douiri, Bruce B Duncan, Andre Rodrigues Duraes, Arielle Wilder Eagan, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Kristina Edvardsson, Iffat Elbarazi, Maha El Tantawi, Saman Esmaeilnejad, Ibtihal Fadhil, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Carla Sofia e Sá Farinha, Medhat Farwati, Farshad Farzadfar, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Valery L Feigin, Rachel Feldman, Carlota Fernandez Prendes, Pietro Ferrara, Irina Filip, Filippos Filippidis, Florian Fischer, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A Foigt, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Masoud Foroutan, Mohamed M Gad, Abhay Motiramji Gaidhane, Silvano Gallus, Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam, Mansour Ghafourifard, Alireza Ghajar, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Simona Giampaoli, Paramjit Singh Gill, Franklin N Glozah, Elena V Gnedovskaya, Mahaveer Golechha, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Giuseppe Gorini, Houman Goudarzi, Alessandra C Goulart, Felix Greaves, Avirup Guha, Yuming Guo, Bhawna Gupta, Rajat Das Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Tarun Gupta, Vin Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Mohammad Rifat Haider, Randah R Hamadeh, Graeme J Hankey, Arief Hargono, Risky Kusuma Hartono, Hadi Hassankhani, Simon I Hay, Golnaz Heidari, Claudiu Herteliu, Kamal Hezam, Thomas R Hird, Michael K Hole, Ramesh Holla, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Sorin Hostiuc, Mowafa Househ, Thomas Hsiao, Junjie Huang, Vincent C Iannucci, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Bulat Idrisov, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Irena M Ilic, Milena D Ilic, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Jessica Y Islam, Rakibul M Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Farhad Islami, Hiroyasu Iso, Ramaiah Itumalla, Masao Iwagami, Jalil Jaafari, Vardhmaan Jain, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Sung-In Jang, Hosna Janjani, Shubha Jayaram, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Ravi Prakash Jha, Jost B Jonas, Tamas Joo, Mikk Jürisson, Ali Kabir, Zubair Kabir, Leila R Kalankesh, Tanuj Kanchan, Himal Kandel, Neeti Kapoor, Salah Eddin Karimi, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Bayew Kelkay, Ryan David Kennedy, Abdullah T Khoja, Jagdish Khubchandani, Gyu Ri Kim, Young-Eun Kim, Ruth W Kimokoti, Mika Kivimäki, Soewarta Kosen, Sindhura Lakshmi Koulmane Laxminarayana, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Nuworza Kugbey, G Anil Kumar, Nithin Kumar, Om P Kurmi, Dian Kusuma, Ben Lacey, Jennifer O Lam, Iván Landires, Savita Lasrado, Paolo Lauriola, Doo Woong Lee, Yo Han Lee, Janni Leung, Shanshan Li, Hualiang Lin, Shai Linn, Wei Liu, Alan D Lopez, Platon D Lopukhov, Stefan Lorkowski, Alessandra Lugo, Azeem Majeed, Afshin Maleki, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Abdullah A Mamun, Narayana Manjunatha, Borhan Mansouri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Jose Martinez-Raga, Santi Martini, Manu Raj Mathur, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís, Suresh Mehata, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G Menezes, Atte Meretoja, Tuomo J Meretoja, Bartosz Miazgowski, Irmina Maria Michalek, Ted R Miller, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Hamed Mirzaei, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Sanjeev Misra, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Yousef Mohammad, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Shafiu Mohammed, Ali H Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Mohammad Ali Moni, Ghobad Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Shane Douglas Morrison, Tilahun Belete Mossie, Sumaira Mubarik, Erin C Mullany, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi, Behshad Naghshtabrizi, Sanjeev Nair, Mahdi Nalini, Vinay Nangia, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Sreenivas Narasimha Swamy, Muhammad Naveed, Smitha Nayak, Vinod C Nayak, Javad Nazari, Sabina O Nduaguba, Sandhya Neupane Kandel, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Molly R Nixon, Chukwudi A Nnaji, Bo Norrving, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Christoph Nowak, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, In-Hwan Oh, Andrew T Olagunju, Eyal Oren, Nikita Otstavnov, Stanislav S Otstavnov, Mayowa O Owolabi, Mahesh P A, Smita Pakhale, Keyvan Pakshir, Raffaele Palladino, Adrian Pana, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Ashok Pandey, Utsav Parekh, Eun-Cheol Park, Eun-Kee Park, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, George C Patton, Shrikant Pawar, Richard G Pestell, Marina Pinheiro, Michael A Piradov, Saeed Pirouzpanah, Khem Narayan Pokhrel, Roman V Polibin, Akila Prashant, Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi, Amir Radfar, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Azizur Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Nazanin Rajai, Pradhum Ram, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Priya Rathi, Lal Rawal, Andre M N Renzaho, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Aziz Rezapour, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Mavra A Riaz, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Ambuj Roy, Bedanta Roy, Simona Sacco, Basema Saddik, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Sana Salehi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Mehrnoosh Samaei, Abdallah M Samy, Itamar S Santos, Milena M Santric-Milicevic, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Brijesh Sathian, Monika Sawhney, Mete Saylan, Michael P Schaub, Maria Inês Schmidt, Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, Falk Schwendicke, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Allen Seylani, Omid Shafaat, Syed Mahboob Shah, Masood Ali Shaikh, Ali S Shalash, Mohammed Shannawaz, Kiomars Sharafi, Aziz Sheikh, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Mika Shigematsu, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, K M Shivakumar, Siddharudha Shivalli, Roman Shrestha, Soraya Siabani, Negussie Boti Sidemo, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, João Pedro Silva, Ambrish Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Virendra Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Freddy Sitas, Valentin Yurievich Skryabin, Anna Aleksandrovna Skryabina, Matiwos Soboka, Joan B Soriano, Ali Soroush, Sergey Soshnikov, Ireneous N Soyiri, Emma Elizabeth Spurlock, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Dan J Stein, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Stefan Stortecky, Kurt Straif, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Gerhard Sulo, Johan Sundström, Takahiro Tabuchi, Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla, Biruk Wogayehu Taddele, Eyayou Girma Tadesse, Animut Tagele Tamiru, Minale Tareke, Md Ismail Tareque, Ingan Ukur Tarigan, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Rekha Thapar, Ales Tichopad, Musliu Adetola Tolani, Fotis Topouzis, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bach Xuan Tran, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Gebiyaw Wudie Tsegaye, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Hayley D Tymeson, Anayat Ullah, Saif Ullah, Brigid Unim, Rachel L Updike, Marco Vacante, Pascual R Valdez, Constantine Vardavas, Patricia Varona Pérez, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Madhur Verma, Marina V Vetrova, Bay Vo, Giang Thu Vu, Yasir Waheed, Yanzhong Wang, Kevin Welding, Andrea Werdecker, Joanna L Whisnant, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Yigizie Yeshaw, Mohammed Zewdu Yimmer, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Ismaeel Yunusa, Hasan Yusefzadeh, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Muhammed Shahriar Zaman, Maryam Zamanian, Hamed Zandian, Heather J Zar, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, Anasthasia Zastrozhina, Luis Zavala-Arciniega, Jianrong Zhang, Zhi-Jiang Zhang, Chenwen Zhong, Yves Miel H Zuniga, and Emmanuela Gakidou

    The Lancet, ISSN: 01406736, eISSN: 1474547X, Volume: 397, Issue: 10292, Pages: 2337-2360, Published: 19 June 2021 Elsevier BV
    Summary Background Ending the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally. Methods We estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available. Findings Globally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers. Interpretation In the absence of intervention, the annual toll of 7·69 million deaths and 200 million disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking will increase over the coming decades. Substantial progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking tobacco use has been observed in countries from all regions and at all stages of development, but a large implementation gap remains for tobacco control. Countries have a clear and urgent opportunity to pass strong, evidence-based policies to accelerate reductions in the prevalence of smoking and reap massive health benefits for their citizens. Funding Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • COVID-19 Vaccine Development to Vaccination
    A. Pandey, Pradeep Belbase and Ayuska Parajuli

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 807-809, Published: 22 January 2021
    In the race for a safe and effective vaccine against Coronavirus disease-19 manufacturer plays a critical role throughout the development, clinical trial, manufacturing, supply, and vaccination phases. For the efficacy of Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine, proper transport, storage, vaccine carrier, adjuvant, dosage form and route of vaccine administration plays a crucial role for immune response. In the context of no more people were willing to pay for a Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine the logistics of manufacturing, storing and distributing the vaccine, and mass vaccination are essential. It is urgent to improve health promotion and reduce the barriers to Coronavirus disease-19 vaccination. Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine development; vaccination.

  • Global burden of childhood epilepsy, intellectual disability, and sensory impairments
    Bolajoko O. Olusanya, Scott M. Wright, M.K.C. Nair, Nem-Yun Boo, Ricardo Halpern, Hannah Kuper, Amina A. Abubakar, Nihad A. Almasri, Jalal Arabloo, Narendra K. Arora, Sophia Backhaus, Brad D. Berman, Cecilia Breinbauer, Gwen Carr, Petrus J. de Vries, Christie del Castillo-Hegyi, Aziz Eftekhari, Melissa J. Gladstone, Rosa A. Hoekstra, Vijaya Kancherla, Mphelekedzeni C. Mulaudzi, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Felix A. Ogbo, Helen E. Olsen, Jacob O. Olusanya, Ashok Pandey, Maureen E. Samms-Vaughan, Chiara Servili, Amira Shaheen, Tracey Smythe, Donald Wertlieb, Andrew N. Williams, Charles R.J. Newton, Adrian C. Davis, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, and

    Pediatrics, ISSN: 00314005, eISSN: 10984275, Volume: 146, Published: July 2020 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
    At least 291 million children and adolescents had disabilities in 2017 globally, which is substantially higher than the GBD estimate of 93 million in 2004. BACKGROUND: Estimates of children and adolescents with disabilities worldwide are needed to inform global intervention under the disability-inclusive provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals. We sought to update the most widely reported estimate of 93 million children <15 years with disabilities from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2004. METHODS: We analyzed Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 data on the prevalence of childhood epilepsy, intellectual disability, and vision or hearing loss and on years lived with disability (YLD) derived from systematic reviews, health surveys, hospital and claims databases, cohort studies, and disease-specific registries. Point estimates of the prevalence and YLD and the 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around the estimates were assessed. RESULTS: Globally, 291.2 million (11.2%) of the 2.6 billion children and adolescents (95% UI: 249.9–335.4 million) were estimated to have 1 of the 4 specified disabilities in 2017. The prevalence of these disabilities increased with age from 6.1% among children aged <1 year to 13.9% among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. A total of 275.2 million (94.5%) lived in low- and middle-income countries, predominantly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The top 10 countries accounted for 62.3% of all children and adolescents with disabilities. These disabilities accounted for 28.9 million YLD or 19.9% of the overall 145.3 million (95% UI: 106.9–189.7) YLD from all causes among children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The number of children and adolescents with these 4 disabilities is far higher than the 2004 estimate, increases from infancy to adolescence, and accounts for a substantial proportion of all-cause YLD.

  • Key Informant Methods: An Innovative Social Mobilization Strategy to enable Communitybased Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation for People with Disability
    Ashok Pandey and Pratima Gautam

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 147-149, Published: 20 April 2020 Nepal Health Research Council
    Key informant method is an innovative technique for identifying people who are disabled in the community, by training local volunteers to act as key informants. Key informants are the local native people include teachers, village doctors, local health workers, religious leaders, community leaders, students, traditional healers, police, NGO staffs, health professionals, local journalists, village councils etc. For them, host organization organized a training to train the key informants to identify and refer the suspected disable people. The study proved key informant method as a valid method for identification of disabling children. Key informant method had a high sensitivity (average 98%) for case detection in all groups but specificity was lower (average 44%), particularly for hearing impairment. Key Informant Method can be used to collect data on types of disabilities, cause, the magnitude of impairments, severity, quantify a need for disabled people, and making access to services (including adoption, health check-up, vocational training, rehabilitation, and other facilitation training).Keywords: Bangladesh; disability; key Informant; key informant methods

  • Professional quality of life among medical doctors working in kathmandu: A descriptive cross-sectional study
    Anju Vaidya, Shristi Karki, Meghnath Dhimal, Pradip Gyanwali, Dibash Baral, Ashok Pandey, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, ISSN: 00282715, Issue: 231, Pages: 900-904, Published: 2020 Journal of Nepal Medical Association (JNMA)
    Introduction: The practice of medicine is an honorable profession besides being accompanied by a demanding environment. This study aimed to find out the professional quality of life of medical doctors working in Kathmandu valley.&#x0D; Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 174 Nepalese medical doctors working in different hospitals of Kathmandu valley. Ethical approval was taken from the Ethical Review Board of the Nepal Health Research Council (Reference Number: 830). The data collection tool used in the study was WHO Professional Quality of Life Scale-5 to collect data about Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary traumatic stress among medical doctors working in Kathmandu valley. Data analysis was done in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.&#x0D; Results: Out of 174 participants, 101 (58%), 126 (72.4%) and 135 (77.6%) were found to have moderate level of Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress respectively.&#x0D; Conclusions: More than half, nearly two-third, and more than two-third participants had moderate levels of Compassion satisfaction, Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress respectively. The overall study findings reflected good balance between Compassion satisfaction and Compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) among the Nepalese medical doctors. Further assessment of professional quality of life of doctors as well as other health care workers via Multifaceted and large-scale study is recommended.

  • Are Health Agencies Designated as Research Centers in Nepal Conducting Adequate Researches ?
    Arun Kumar Sah, Pradeep Belbase, Ashok Pandey, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 285-287, Published: 13 November 2019 Nepal Health Research Council
    Background: In Nepal, promoting quality research and enhancing research capacity is being accomplished through Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC). It also plays an authorized body to regulate, monitor and coordinate health research centers by maintaining the highest level of ethical standards. The aim of this study is to explore situation of health agencies designated as research center in Nepal.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study design was used to carry out monitoring and follow up of activities of research centre of all seven provinces of Nepal that had title “Research” in their title name from January 2018 to July 2018.Results: There were only 81 research centers in Nepal and more than half (55 percent) of these have been found in Kathmandu valley, Province 3. Research found that 82.3% so called research centers were just health service provider and 10% of research institute were research based and just 5% have the core objectives of research. Likewise, 30% of research institute were actually involved in health related researches whereas large proportion (70%) of research institute were not involved in any kind of research work. Surprisingly, only 37.5% have taken ethical approval to conduct the designated research. Conclusions: Only one tenth of the research centers have mentioned research as their core business. However, less than one third of such centers were involved in heath research, and out of which, only 28 percent took ethical permission. Most of the research organizations want to conduct research but they do not have required research skills and competent manpower to carry out research.Keywords: Health research centers; monitoring; Nepal.

  • Febrile Illness Outbreak Investigation in Sundarharicha-5 Foklan Tapu, Morang District
    Ashok Pandey, Arun Kumar Sah, Pradeep Belbase, Anil Kumar Sah, and Anjani Kumar Jha

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 148-152, Published: 4 August 2019 Nepal Health Research Council
    Background: On the date of 24 July 2017, the major national daily newspaper reported that there were two death cases from an unknown disease in the Morang district, Sundarharicha Municipality 5, Foklan Tapu. A team of researcher and experts were mobilized in the affected area to investigate and identify the etiological and epidemiological causes.Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to conduct the outbreak investigation. 83 blood samples were taken from the patients and microbiological analysis was done at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu. Similarly, 2 verbal autopsies and 5 Key in-depth interviews were taken from a local community leader, local health service providers, medical officer of Koshi Zonal Hospital, district public health officer and medical director of WHO.Results: Out of 83 participants, 49% and 25% of the participants were positive to IgM and IgG antibodies of Leptospira species respectively. 87% of the participants were exposed to animal living in his/her home (including pets). Conclusions: An outbreak which was existing during this investigation turned out to be leptospirosis outbreak, whose exposure was consumption of unhealthy meat during social gathering.Keywords: Epidemiological; etiological; febrile illness; outbreak investigation.

  • Assessing Health Status of Khanigaun Village Development Committee in Nuwakot District of Nepal
    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, eISSN: 19996217, Pages: 13-17, Published: 1 January 2016