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Amanda Gleyce Lima de Oliveira, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim, and Helena Lúcia Carneiro Santos
PLoS ONE, eISSN: 19326203, Issue: 8 August, Published: August 2021 Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Intestinal cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by protists of genus Cryptosporidium that infect a wide variety of hosts, primarily vertebrates. Due to the close contact between humans and their companion animals, especially dogs and cats, there is concern about the potential for zoonotic transmission of this enteric protozoan parasite by infected animals. This study aimed to perform a microscopic and molecular diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples from domiciled dogs and cats. One hundred and nineteen fecal samples were processed using sugar centrifugal flotation followed by molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. DNA using nested PCR. Subtyping of isolates positive for C. parvum was performed by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene (GP60). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 7.8% (5/64) and 5.4% (3/55) of the fecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium canis (n = 3) and C. parvum (n = 2) were the main species found in dogs, whereas C. felis (n = 3) was prevalent in cats. Subtype IIaA17G2R2 (potentially zoonotic) was identified in samples positive for C. parvum. Despite the low prevalence of Cryptosporidium observed in the domiciled dogs and cats, the presence of potentially zoonotic C. parvum in dogs evidences a public health concern. Further research is needed to better understand the epidemiology, source, and potential impacts of Cryptosporidium infection in cats and dogs.
Igor Falco Arruda, Wellington Alves de Freitas, Kênia de Fátima Carrijo, Paula Silva da Paz, Marianny Miranda Silva, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Fabielle Marques-Santos, Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, and Patricia Riddell Millar
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria, ISSN: 0103846X, eISSN: 19842961, Pages: 1-8, Published: 2020 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw/undercooked meat is considering an important route of infection. Consumption of meat from equids is common in European and Asian countries and an increase in Brazil has been observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of anti-T. gondii antibodies and risk factors relating to infection in equids slaughtered for human consumption in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 192 horses and 208 donkeys were collected in the exsanguination area during the slaughter. Serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Association analysis was performed using Pearson’s chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher’s exact test, to evaluate risk factors relating to the prevalence of seroreagents. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 13.5% of the equids, with higher occurrence in horses (18.75%) than in donkeys (8.65%). Associations between seropositivity and the following variables were found (p ≤ 0.05): species, animal origin, purpose of rearing and source of water for animal consumption and contact with cats. Farms need to implement preventive measures to control T. gondii infection in these species and avert transmission of the parasite to the human population that will consume their meat.
Daniela Leles, Liesbeth Frías, Adauto Araújo, Beatriz Brener, Adriana Sudré, Márcia Chame, and Valmir Laurentino
Experimental Parasitology, ISSN: 00144894, eISSN: 10902449, Volume: 205, Published: October 2019 Elsevier BV
Intestinal protozoans found in ancient human samples have been studied primarily by microscopy and immunodiagnostic assays. However, such methods are not suitable for the detection of zoonotic genotypes. The objectives of the present study were to utilize immunoenzimatic assays for coproantigen detection of Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in sixty ancient human and animal samples collected from 14 archaeological sites in South America, and to carry out a critical analysis of G. duodenalis according to results obtained from three diagnostic methodologies: microscopy, immunodiagnostic tests (immunoenzymatic and immunofluorescence), and molecular biology (PCR and sequencing). More than half (31/60) of the samples analyzed using immunoenzymatic tests were positive for at least one of the intestinal protozoans, with 46.6% (28/60) corresponding to G. duodenalis, 26.6% (16/60) to Cryptosporidium sp., and 5% (3/60) to E. histolytica/E. dispar. Cryptosporidium sp. and G. duodenalis coinfection was observed in 15% (9/60) of the samples, whereas all three protozoans were found in 5% (3/60) of samples. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, by immunoenzymatic tests there is evidence that G. duodenlais and Cryptosporidium sp. have infected humans and rodents for at least 7150 years. However, for G. duodenalis, the results from the three diagnostic tests were discordant. Specifically, despite the efficiency of the molecular biology assay in the experimental models, G. duodenalis DNA could not be amplified from the ancient samples. These results raise the following question: Are all ancient samples positive for coproantigen of G. duodenalis by immunoenzymatic tests truly positive? This scenario highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the immunoenzymatic method in the archaeological context.
The Journal of parasitology, eISSN: 19372345, Volume: 105, Pages: 387-390, Published: 1 April 2019
M. S. G. Silva, D. Leles, A. P. Sudré, P. R. Millar, F. Uchôa, and B. Brener
The Journal of parasitology, eISSN: 19372345, Volume: 105, Pages: 387-390, Published: 1 April 2019 American Society of Parasitologists
ABSTRACT Canine dirofilariasis is common in Brazil, but molecular diagnosis is rare even though molecular studies increase our knowledge about molecular epidemiology and circulating genotypes from helminths worldwide. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of infection with a modified Knott's test and to perform molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) Railliet and Henry, 1911, in dogs from endemic areas of Maricá and Niterói municipalities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Molecular characterization was performed in 33 blood samples from dogs positive for microfilariae and 4 adult worms obtained from 2 other dogs. DNA extraction followed by PCR for mitochondrial target 12S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) of D. immitis were performed, and the amplified products were sequenced. All sequences were identical for both gene targets and showed 100% identity with D. immitis sequences from different animal species from various countries. The study concluded that this genotype of D. immitis might be dispersed worldwide.
The Journal of parasitology, eISSN: 19372345, Volume: 105, Pages: 248-251, Published: 1 April 2019
Renan M. Spinelli, Flávia F.M. Uchôa, Rodrigo C. Menezes, Fernanda N. Santos, and Adriana P. Sudré
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences, ISSN: 07198000, eISSN: 07198132, Pages: 131-134, Published: 2019 SciELO Agencia Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo (ANID)
Canine Leishmaniasis diagnosis must be fast and accurate since dogs are urban reservoirs of the disease and earlier therapeutic intervention is more clinically effective. However, this still represents a challenge, particularly in low transmission areas. The present report describes the difficulties of clinical suspicion and the late diagnosis of a dog infected with Leishmania sp.
Gabriela Cardoso Goes, Karina Costa Coelho Gonçalves, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia Mattos, Beatriz Brener, Paula Borba Cruz, Valmir Laurentino Silva, and Patricia Riddell Millar
Journal of Tropical Pathology, ISSN: 03010406, eISSN: 19808178, Pages: 121-133, Published: 2019 Universidade Federal de Goias
The present study evaluated the frequency of intestinal parasitoses in children in public day care centers applying parasitological and immunological diagnostic methods. Fecal samples from 121 children from six public daycare centers were analyzed using parasitological techniques. Epidemiological data were obtained through a questionnaire, where parents and / or guardians were asked, for instance, whether the children had contact with soil, ate raw food, such as vegetables or raw or undercooked meat, normally walked around barefoot or had contact with animals. Fecal samples from 82 children were also tested for Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. coproantigen using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which was also used for Entamoeba coproantigen detection only in samples that tested positive for the parasite by parasitological stool exam/optical microscopy. Intestinal parasite infection was noted in 23.1% (28/121) of the children. The most frequent parasite was Giardia intestinalis (13.2%), followed by Entamoeba coli (5.8%), Blastocystis spp. (1.7%), Endolimax nana (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Cystoisospora belli (0.8%),Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (0.8%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Positivity for parasite infection using parasitological stool exams was significantly associated with age groups, with a higher frequency in 4 to 6 year old children (p=0.03). No association or significant variations were noted in the prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to the epidemiological variables studied. All samples were negative for Cryptosporidium sp. and Entamoeba histolytica detected by immunological testing, and 17.1% (14/82) children tested positive for Giardia intestinalis, although using parasitological exam/optical microscopy, only 14.6% (12/82) tested positive. The high incidence of intestinal parasites, especially protozoans, suggests probable interpersonal transmission among the children, environmental contamination, or even contaminated food/water intake. Thus, consolidation of preventive measures and efficient diagnostic resources as well as control of intestinal parasites and patient treatment are of utmost importance.
Karina Costa Coelho Gonçalves, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, Kênia De Fátima Carrijo, Daniela Leles, Guilherme Mendes Borges Nunes, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Gabriela Cardoso Góes, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, and Patricia Riddell Millar
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, ISSN: 14139596, eISSN: 16784456, Published: 21 December 2018 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Agencia USP de Gestao da Informacao Academica (AGUIA)
This study aimed to determine the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the serum of slaughtered chickens in the region of Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to detect the parasite in tissues (heart and brain) of serologically positive chickens, based on molecular analysis, and to investigate risk variables associated with the infection. Sera from 417 chickens raised in extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive production systems were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect T. gondii DNA in brain and heart tissues. Antibody anti-T. gondii were found in 37.65% (157/417) of chickens by IFAT, and in 75.06% (313/417) by IHA. The Kappa index showed a weak concordance between the techniques (0.087). Association was observed between seropositivity and the variables, age (p < 0.0001), type of feeding (p < 0.0001) and collective raising with other animal’s species (p < 0.0001). Association, based on IFAT, was not observed between seropositivity and the variables, sex (p = 0.0526), presence of cats (p > 0.9999), and presence of rats (p > 0.9999). Presence of parasite DNA was detected in brain samples from two chickens, which were raised in intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results suggest the meat of these slaughtered animals may serve as a transmission source of this protozoan to humans.
Daniela Leles, Paula Cascardo, Elisa Pucu, Beatriz Brener, Adriana Sudré, Elizabeth Alves, Flávia Uchoa, Priscilla Fajardo, Patrícia Millar, Danuza Mattos, Márcia Chame, and Castor Cartelle
Parasitology International, ISSN: 13835769, eISSN: 18730329, Pages: 776-780, Published: December 2018 Elsevier BV
The use of diagnostic methods that prevent irreplaceable samples (from museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples) of being consumed or that increase their yield is relevant. For museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples it is essential to conserve samples, subsamples or portions for future research. We are addressing methods for conservation of irreplaceable samples that could be fully consumed. Innovations in methodologies that are used in studies of Paleoparasitology and Paleomicrobiology will contribute to the preservation of collections. Therefore, to the development of archaeology and paleontology in the future, we evaluated whether the discarded material of the immunochromatography test could be used for molecular diagnosis and vice versa. We used a genotyped experimental coprolite positive for Giardia duodenalis. The diagnosis was positive for giardiasis in both cases. This methodology can be corroborated with the coprolite of a Paleolama maior (extinct llama) previously diagnosed for G. duodenalis with an immunoenzymatic test. The residue of the pre-digestion step of the DNA extraction before adding Proteinase K was confirmed positive with the immunochromatographic test. Also, the DNA extraction residue from a coprolite of Nothrotherium maquinense (ground sloth) was tested positive with immunochromatographic test for G. duodenalis. These are the oldest findings for G. duodenalis confirming that this intestinal parasite occurred among Northeastern Brazilian Megafauna animals from the late Pleistocene period, correlated to human occupation. The relevance of these results will allow the study by different methodological approaches from a small amount of material, reusing discarded materials.
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Sabrina Destri Emmerick Campos, and Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN: 01677012, eISSN: 18728359, Volume: 145, Pages: 73-78, Published: February 2018 Elsevier BV
Enteric parasitic diseases including giardiasis are of public health concern. Different methods are available for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in fecal samples such as the identification of protozoan cysts and trophozoites by light microscopy, detection of specific antigens by ELISA, and amplification of DNA fragments by PCR. The present study aimed at assessing the performance of four laboratory tests for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in fecal specimens from three different host species with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis; canine, feline and human patients provided new stool samples to be retested for Giardia before initiating treatment with antiprotozoal drugs. For this purpose, triplicate fecal specimens from 54 humans, 24 dogs and 18 cats living in the city of Niterói, RJ, southeast Brazil, were analysed by light microscopy, ELISA, immunochromatography, and nested PCR. The centrifugal-flotation method detected Giardia cysts in 89.6% (86/96) of the fecal samples. The protozoan parasite was detected via immunochromatography in 87.5% (84/96) of these samples. Giardia was detected by ELISA in 69.8% (67/96) of the stool specimens from carriers with a previous diagnosis of Giardia infection. Giardia was detected by PCR in only 39.6% (38/96) of the fecal specimens. Based on these findings, we suggest that, among the four assays that were used in this study, the zinc sulphate flotation technique (Faust et al., 1939) is the best diagnostic assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity to detect G. duodenalis on serially collected samples from dogs, cats and humans.
Ricardo Silva Novaes, Marcus Sandes Pires, Adriana Pittella Sudré, and Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim
Acta Tropica, ISSN: 0001706X, eISSN: 18736254, Volume: 178, Pages: 297-302, Published: February 2018 Elsevier BV
Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis.
VIVIANE A.N. COSTA, BEATRIZ BRENER, ANA BEATRIZ M. FONSECA, and ADRIANA P. SUDRÉ
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, ISSN: 00013765, eISSN: 16782690, Pages: 479-483, Published: 2018 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide intestinal parasite and is one of the most frequent protozoa species infecting dogs and cats. This study aimed to modify the methodology of Alere GIARDIA Ag TEST KIT for its use in frozen fecal sediments with different storage times in a freezer (-20°C), thus expanding the range of use of this methodology. One hundred fecal sediments from dogs (n=50) and cats (n=50) previously examined by optical microscopy for Giardia cysts were selected for this study. The agreement between the modified immunochromatography and microscopy results was calculated by Kappa coefficient. To evaluate the performance of the modified immunochromatography assay on samples with different storage time, the fecal sediments were divided into three groups according to the time of storage in a freezer: (a) ≤ 1 year (n=37); (b) > 1 year and ≤ 3 years (n=39); (c) > 10 years (max. 13 years) (n=24). The results obtained by the modified immunochromatography assay demonstrates a higher sensitivity of this technique when compared with microscopy, regardless of the frozen storage time. These results allow for the use of this methodology in a greater scope of analysis, especially in frozen fecal sediment triage in sample collections, enabling epidemiological and comparative analysis along different decades.
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, and Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Acta Tropica, ISSN: 0001706X, eISSN: 18736254, Volume: 173, Pages: 202-203, Published: September 2017 Elsevier BV
Fabielle Marques-Santos, Maria Regina R. Amendoeira, Kênia F. Carrijo, João Paulo A.F. Santos, Igor F. Arruda, Adriana P. Sudré, Beatriz Brener, and Patricia R. Millar
Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, ISSN: 0100736X, eISSN: 16785150, Pages: 570-576, Published: 1 June 2017 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
ABSTRACT: The Triângulo Mineiro region from Minas Gerais state, is an important meat-exporting region of Brazil and data about Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs raised and slaughtered in this area are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of T. gondii in swine and establish the risk factors associated with the infection. Samples were collected from 600 pigs raised under intensive system in farms located at three different counties (Carmo do Paranaíba, Patrocínio and Perdizes). The samples were submitted to indirect hemagglutination antibody test with dilution of 1:32 and to indirect immunofluorescence antibody test with a cutoff of 1:64. The occurrence of positive pig was 3.3% (n=20) and 51.8% (n=311) respectively. A significant difference was observed between toxoplasmatic infection and factors such as lineage, animal origin, size of the farm, collective raising with others species, presence of rodents and type of water offered (p≤0.05). There was no difference between gender and the farm goals. The results demonstrated an occurrence of anti-T.gondii antibodies higher than expected for intensive pig raising system on the studied area, which could indicate a possible sanitary management problem on the studied proprieties. Improvements on the raising techniques are necessary to reduce T. gondii infection sources.
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Daniel de Barros Macieira, and Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, ISSN: 00364665, eISSN: 16789946, Published: 2017 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
ABSTRACT Giardia infection is a common clinical problem in humans and pets. The diagnosis of giardiasis is challenging as hosts intermittently excrete protozoan cysts in their feces. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated two methods of serial fecal sampling in humans, dogs, and cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Faust et al. technique was used to examine fecal specimens collected in triplicate from 133 patients (52 humans, 60 dogs, and 21 cats). Specimens from 74 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on consecutive days - 34 humans, 35 dogs, and 5 cats, and specimens from 59 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on non-consecutive, separate days - 18 human beings, 25 dogs, and 16 cats. G. duodenalis cysts were found in stools of 30 individuals. Multiple stool sampling resulted in an increase in the number of samples that were positive for Giardia in both groups. The authors therefore conclude that multiple stool sampling increases the sensitivity of the Faust et al . technique to detect G. duodenalis cysts in samples from humans, cats and dogs.
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, , Adriana Pittella Sudré, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny, , and
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, ISSN: 22221808, Pages: 455-457, Published: 2017 Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine Press
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Clinics and Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niterói, RJ, Brasil Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Biomedical Institute, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niterói, RJ, Brasil Department of Clinics and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niterói, RJ, Brasil Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2017; 7(8): 455-457
Patricia Riddell Millar, Fernanda Loureiro de Moura, Otílio Machado Pereira Bastos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de Mattos, Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Daniela Leles, and Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, ISSN: 00364665, eISSN: 16789946, Pages: 433-438, Published: 2014 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented.
MCM Couto, AP Sudre, MF Lima, and TCB Bomfim
Veterinarni Medicina, ISSN: 03758427, Pages: 535-542, Published: 2013 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Differentiating between the Cryptosporidium species and their subtypes using only microscopy is impossible. Therefore, molecular tools are indispensable for accurate species and subtype diagnosis. However, if these tools are to be used correctly and accurately, the techniques used must be standardised. In the present study, two molecular techniques for diagnosing Cryptosporidium infection in cows were compared to determine the optimal methods. For each technique, we tested two DNA extraction methods, several annealing temperatures for nested PCR reactions targeting the 18S, SSU rRNA (small subunit ribosomal RNA), and the GP60 (60 kDa glycoprotein) genes, and two types of DNA staining reagents, ethidium bromide and GelRed<sup>TM</sup>. We determined that one of the tested protocols yields a higher purity of extracted DNA. Additionally, optimised temperatures for the nested PCR of the 18S and GP60 genes were established. Finally, we determined that the GelRed<sup>TM</sup> dye was more sensitive than ethidium bromide, and its low toxicity facilitates handling and disposal and reduces environmental contamination.
Beatriz Brener, Patricia Riddell Millar, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de Mattos, Flávia Uchôa, Bethânia Bastos, Ingrid Rodrigues Lyrio, Pedro Luis Aragon, and Adriana Pittella Sudré
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, ISSN: 00364665, eISSN: 16789946, Pages: 175-177, Published: May 2012 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
Report of two canine dirofilariosis cases of ectopic location in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This is the first report of erratic migration for this parasitosis in dogs in the state, calling attention to the short period of time between the two cases. The fact that the area is endemic for this parasite, its zoonotic potential and the report of human cases in the state, demonstrates that authorities should be alerted to the control programs of dirofilariosis along with the pathogenic profile of the infections.
Adriana Pittella Sudré, Beatriz Brener, and Flávia Uchôa
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 14138670, eISSN: 16784391, Pages: 111-112, Published: January 2012 Elsevier BV
Barbosa et al.10 demonstrated that the domestic cat has a pattern of infection by L. minor very similar to those of humans, thus acting as reservoirs for this parasite. We report here the first case of L. minor natural infection in a domestic cat in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Parasitism was not detected in the owner, but his close relationship with the cat increases the potential risk for human infection, bringing up the concern of new human cases in this area, making this information valuable for development of public health measures. Dear editor, Human lagochilascariasis is a rare zoonosis characterized by subcutaneous purulent lesions caused by Lagochilascaris sp. (Nematoda, Ascaridida), parasites of wild cats. The parasite natural life cycle and mechanisms of infection are poorly known. Definitive host infection occurs by preying on intermediate hosts with encysted L3 larvae in their muscle tissue.1 There are five known species of the genera Lagochilascaris, but only Lagochilascaris minor was associated with human infection. Currently, L. minor and Lagochilascaris major have been found parasitizing cats in Brazil,2,3 and only L. minor was reported to infect humans.4 In Brazil, L. major was found naturally infecting two domestic cats,3 and L. minor was recorded in one domestic cat.2 We report the second case of natural infection by L. minor in domestic cats (Felis catus) in Brazil, the first in Rio de Janeiro state, calling attention for potential human infection. A 2-year old female mixed-breed cat, weighting 3 kg, living in a farm situated in Km 52 of Rio-Friburgo Road in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu (22° 27’49”S, 42° 39’09”W), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, presented anorexia, prostration and weight loss. The animal had an abscess in the right side of the neck ventral region with intense itching. During the drainage of the abscess a bloody secretion with 11 milky-white color helminthes were found and collected for identification. The helminthes were fixed in hot AFA (alcohol 70o GL, 93 mL; formaldehyde, 5 mL; acetic acid, 2 mL), clarified with acetic acid and phenol, mounted in slides with Canada balsam and deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC), number 35752 (whole mounts). Adult parasites had 14 to 21 mm length by 0.45 to 0.61 mm width and were identified as L. minor.5,6 Microphotographs were obtained with Olympus BX41 bright field microscope (Fig. 1). The first Brazilian case of human lagochilascariasis was described by Artigas et al.7 in the state of São Paulo, and today Brazil has the highest number (88) of human cases reported in the literature.4 However, lagochilascariasis in naturally infected domestic cats has been rarely reported, with only a few cases in Uruguay,5,8 Argentina,9 and Brazil.2,3 Letter to the Editor
Adriana P. Sudré, Ricardo C. Siqueira, Magali G. M. Barreto, Regina H. S. Peralta, Heloisa W. Macedo, and José M. Peralta
Parasitology Research, ISSN: 09320113, Volume: 101, Pages: 1117-1123, Published: September 2007 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Strongyloidiasis caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis typically occurs in the asymptomatic form. The definitive diagnosis is usually done by detection of larvae on fecal samples. However, as the parasite load is often low in most cases, microscopy is not usually sensitive and specific, and diagnosis becomes extremely difficult. Thus, development of reliable serological methods is imperative. In the present study, a diversity of epitopes from S. stercoralis larva were characterized by analysis of reactivity with serum samples obtained from individuals with and without the infection by using Western blot technique. A total of 91 serum samples belonging to 5 groups were analyzed. Different reactivity profiles were observed, representing recognition of proteins with molecular mass varied from 6 to 129 kDa. A protein band of approximately 26 kDa presented a high frequency of reactivity with serum samples from the strongyloidiasis patients group (18/23). Reactivity with this protein band was also observed in only 7 of 64 non-infected individuals or individuals infected with other helminthes. Reactivity with 2 other bands, 1 of approximately 33 kDa and a duplet of approximately 21 kDa, were also found in high frequency (17/23 and 9/23, respectively). However, reactivity with these bands was also observed in all the other serum groups studied. The results indicate that the 26-kDa band maybe be an important tool for the development of diagnostic techniques for strongyloidiasis.
AP Sudre, D. Leles, MF Lima, and TCB Bomfim
Veterinarni Medicina, ISSN: 03758427, Pages: 283-292, Published: 2007 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences
The aim of this study was to perform the first molecular genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from goats in Brazil, in order to assess the risk for zoonotic transmission. Samples were collected from two dairy goat farms (Saanen breed) located in the city of Niteroi in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Goat faecal samples (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;58) were collected directly from the rectums of all animals up to one year of age and were subjected to centrifuge-flotation in sugar saturate solution. Nested-PCR and sequencing using &beta; -giardin and tpi gene targets was performed on positive samples. Seventeen out of fifty-eight (29.31%) faecal samples were positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, all belonging to the same farm. Only eight isolates were successfully sequenced (eight samples for &beta;-giardin and four samples for tpi), all belonging to genotype E. Two types of sequences were identified for each locus within isolates from the current study, which exhibited sequence heterogeneity with variable numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this parasite. &nbsp;