Dewi Susanna

Verified email at ui.ac.id

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health
Universitas Indonesia



                       

https://researchid.co/dsusanna

EDUCATION

Public Health

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Vector-Borne Diseases; Food Safety-Security and Hygiene

25

Scopus Publications

Scopus Publications

  • Public Perception and Obedience with Social DistancingPolicies during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia
    Widyamurti Widyamurti, Edwina Bernita Sitorus, Dewi Susanna, Bambang Wispriyono, Aria Kusuma, and Renti Mahkota

    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 74-80, Published: February 2022 Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
    The Indonesian Government established a social distancing policy to prevent COVID-19 transmission. However, this implementation will be ineffective without the compliance of the people. This research aimed to analyze the relationship between public perception and obedience with social distancing in terms of the variables based on the Health Belief Model. This study used a cross-sectional design with a population of DKI Jakarta’s indigenes within the productive age of 15-64 years. The sample comprised 408 participants, with the independent variables of socio-demographics (age, gender, occupation, and education) and health beliefs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy). Meanwhile, obedience to social distancing was the dependent variable. Data were obtained through an online questionnaire and evaluated with the bivariate and multivariate analysis using Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Gender (OR=2.327; 95% CI=1.404-3.857) and perceived self-efficacy (OR=2.609; 95% CI=1.726-3.945) were significantly related to social distancing obedience. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation (p > 0.05) was found with socio-demographics, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers. The males with low self-efficacy are more likely to disobey the social distancing policies. The individual’s self-efficacy perception increased with their level of obedience to social distancing policies.

  • Current status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in the Asian countries: A systematic review
    Dewi Susanna and Dian Pratiwi

    F1000Research, ISSN: 20461402, eISSN: 1759796X, Published: 2022 F1000 Research Ltd
    Background: The application of insecticides for malaria vector control has led to a global problem, which is the current trend of increased resistance against these chemicals. This study aimed to review the insecticide resistance status was previously determined in Asia and how to implement the necessary interventions. Moreover, the implications of resistance in malaria vector control in this region were studied. Methods: This systematic review was conducted using a predefined protocol based on PRISMA-retrieved articles from four science databases, namely ProQuest, Science Direct, EBSCO, and PubMed in the last ten years (2009 to 2019). The searching process utilized four main combinations of the following keywords: malaria, vector control, insecticide, and Asia. In ProQuest, malaria control, as well as an insecticide, were used as keywords. The following criteria were included in the filter, namely full text, the source of each article, scholarly journal, Asia, and publication date as in the last ten years. Results: There were 1408 articles retrieved during the initial search (ProQuest=722, Science Direct=267, EBSCO=50, PubMed=285, and Scopus=84). During the screening, 27 articles were excluded because of duplication, 1361 based on title and abstract incompatibility with the inclusion criteria, and 20 due to content differences. In the final screening process, 15 articles were chosen to be analyzed. From the 15 articles, it is known that there was organochlorine (DDT), organophosphate (malathion), and pyrethroids resistance in several Anopheles species with a less than 80% mortality rate. Conclusion: This review found multiple resistance in several Anopheles includes resistance to pyrethroid. The reports of pyrethroid resistance were quite challenging because it is considered effective in the malaria vector control. Several countries in Asia are implementing an insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy against malaria vectors following the Global Plan for IRM.

  • Support of the implementation of a whistleblowing system for smoke-free environments: A mixed methods approach
    Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, La Ode Hasnuddin S. Sagala, La Ode Ahmad Saktiansyah, Dewi Susanna, and Hanns Moshammer

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN: 16617827, eISSN: 16604601, Published: December-1 2021 MDPI AG
    Enforcement of a smoke-free policy is of vital concern in support of the health of smokers and bystanders. Indonesia has issued a smoke-free law, but implementation and enforcement lie with the regional and municipal governments. In a survey of 225 respondents recruited via schools, knowledge about the health effects of smoking and the smoke-free regulation, as well as attitudes towards and commitment and support of the enforcement of the smoke-free regulation in the Kendari City through an electronic whistleblowing system was examined. Furthermore, the participants were asked about the smoking status and smoking behavior. About half of the respondents were students (teenagers), the other half—their parents. Male respondents were strongly overrepresented (85%). Only 18% of the respondents declared to be smokers, mostly adults and males. Both the smokers and the non-smokers supported the smoke-free law and its enforcement through a whistleblowing system. Representatives of the local government were interviewed and participated in focus group discussions. In general, they also exhibited strong support of an electronic enforcement tool. However, issues of efficiency, costs, and responsibility must still be resolved. Nevertheless, an electronic whistleblowing system has the potential to further the health and livelihoods in a community like the Kendari City.

  • Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers at kitchen premises in the port ‘X’ area, north Jakarta, Indonesia 2018
    Muharnis Supriyani Putri and Dewi Susanna

    Italian Journal of Food Safety, eISSN: 22397132, Published: 22 November 2021 PAGEPress Publications
    Improper food handling can be a major cause of food contamination. To prevent food contamination, the food handler should have good knowledge, display a positive attitude, and practice proper food handling practices. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety and personal hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers at kitchen premises in the Port ‘X’ area in North Jakarta, Indonesia. This study uses a cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in April 2018 and May 2018. Data were collected from 72 food handlers from kitchens located in the Port ‘X’ area in North Jakarta. Data collection was performed through interviews and observations, using questionnaires and checklists as research instruments. The results show a significant correlation between the level of knowledge about food safety and the attitude of food handlers (p=0.01), and attitude scores were significantly higher among food handlers who reported attending a previous food safety training course (p=0.002) with (r=0.302) it means a weak uphill (positive) linear relationship attitude scores and training that food handlers attended. This study found a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of food handlers, but there was no significant relationship between knowledge or attitude and food handling practices. Thus, it is recommended that training activities for food handlers be held regularly, as the food safety knowledge obtained from training or courses can translate into the improvement of attitudes and food handling practices.

  • Potential development of digital environmental surveillance system in dengue control: A qualitative study
    Sang Purnama, Dewi Susanna, Umar Fachmi Achmadi, Tri Krianto, and Tris Eryando

    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, eISSN: 18579655, Pages: 1443-1453, Published: 10 January 2021 Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI
    Background: The development of digital environmental technology can be conducted to implement reports, surveillance, and manage dengue control. Therefore, this study aims to determine the barriers to the use of paper-based and the potential development of digital environmental technology in dengue control.
  
 Methods
 In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted using 14 key informants and four focus group discussions (FGD) from May-August 2021 in Denpasar City, Bali. The interviews were consistent with the flow of the epidemiological and entomological surveillance system, the obstacles to the dengue control program, the potential for the application of digital technology, and the challenges in the application of digital surveillance technology. Furthermore, open-ended questions and content analysis by qualitative study procedures were adopted. The results were transcribed verbatim and triangulation of sources was conducted for data validation.
  
 Results
 The reporting system that used paper-based was not optimally implemented due to repetition of reporting, speed of information, data bias, performance measurement as well as case surveillance and reporting system constraints. An integrated digital environmental surveillance system (SILIRA) was also developed for dengue control. In the current Covid-19 pandemic, the need for digital applications is high due to the policy of not accepting guests and keeping a distance. Epidemiological surveillance for case data collection, entomological surveillance for larva density, case reporting, and educational videos are the required data in the application.
  
 Conclusion
 The development of an integrated application for an environmental monitoring system can be created for the continuous reporting of case information and larval density for dengue hemorrhagic fever control.
 Keywords: digital, surveillance, environment, dengue
  

  • The existence and characteristics of rats and shrews in endemic leptospirosis areas and types of ectoparasites: A case study of West Jakarta, Indonesia
    Dewi Susanna, Rusyda Ihwani Tantia Nova, and Laura Rozek

    F1000Research, ISSN: 20461402, eISSN: 1759796X, Published: 2021 F1000 Research Ltd
    Background: This study aimed to determine the presence and species of the rats and shrews that can potentially cause leptospirosis in West Jakarta, Indonesia, and the species of ectoparasites found in them. Methods: The research was a descriptive study employing a cross-sectional approach. The study population was all species of rats and shrews in the region and the sample collection technique used was purposive sampling. The traps were installed in the homes of respondents who had suffered from leptospirosis and their closest neighbors, with a total of 521 traps. Leptospirosis data based on secondary data was obtained from West Jakarta Health Office (2016-August 2019). The technique for catching rats involved using humane live traps, while the identification of the rats and ectoparasites was done in the laboratory. Results: It was found that more rats were caught in Cengkareng Timur sub-district, Cengkareng District, with a percentage of 14.8%, while the least in Duri Kepa, Kapuk, Kedaung Kali Angke and Kedoya Utara with a percentage of 3.7%. The rats were mostly found in East Cengkareng Sub-District, with the most common type being Rattus rattus (74.1 %) and the least Suncus murinus (11.1%); more male rats were caught (66.7%) than female (33.3%). The type of ectoparasite found in the rats was fleas. Xenopsylla cheopis was the most common type, at 83.3% and more fleas were male, at 66.7%. The most common rat species was Rattus rattus. The ectoparasite most commonly found in them was the female flea Xenopsylla cheopis. Conclusions:  Rattus rattus and Xenopsylla cheopis were found in an East Cengkareng sub-district. Surveys, monitoring, and control of rats and ectoparasites are essential for the preparedness and development of an early warning system of possible diseases that they can cause.

  • Evaluating the covid-19 pandemic responses
    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 1-2, Published: 2021

  • Impact of climate variables on covid-19 pandemic in asia: A systematic review
    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 82-89, Published: 2021

  • Spatial-temporal analysis of solar radiation exposure andcovid-19 cases in jakarta 2020
    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 44-48, Published: 2021

  • Attitude to COVID-19 Prevention With Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) in Indonesia: Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling
    Sang Gede Purnama and Dewi Susanna

    Frontiers in Public Health, eISSN: 22962565, Published: 30 October 2020 Frontiers Media SA
    There is a continuous increase in the number of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia. To control its spread, the government has implemented several strategies, such as policies associated with large-scale social restrictions (Indonesian: Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar or PSBB). The purpose of this study is to determine the variables that influence attitudes toward PSBB policies in Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained from 856 respondents from all provinces in Indonesia using the partial least squares and structural equation model (PLS-SEM). A total of 23 indicators were used to examine these policies, which were grouped into five variables: benefits of the PSBB (5 indicators), positive perception (5 indicators), negative perception (3 indicators), threatened perceptions of COVID-19 (5 indicators), and attitude toward the PSBB policy (5 indicators). The model explains over 50% of attitudes exhibited toward PSBB policy implementation and how it is influenced by the perceived benefits, negative and positive perceptions as well as the threat associated with COVID-19. The policy of stay at home, physical distancing, and always using face masks needs to be continued for the public to have a supportive attitude of the PSBB policy in preventing the transmission of COVID-19.

  • When will the COVID-19 pandemic in indonesia end?
    Dewi Susanna

    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 160-162, Published: 2020 Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
    On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization(WHO) declared 2019-nCOV to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), due to the significant increase in confirmed new cases in various countries.1 In Indonesia, the first confirmed COVID-19 case was a female who had a closed contact with the 24th confirmed case in Malaysia and the second case was the mother of the first case.2 As time goes by, the number of new cases has increased significantly, reaching 160.165 confirmed cases with 6,944 deaths by August 27, 2020.3 The time when the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia will end is not known, although some studies are attempting to predict this such as in articles, journals, newspapers, and other media.

  • The implementation of the five keys to safer food in campus cafeterias and the effects on escherichia coli contamination
    Dewi Susanna, Aria Kusuma, Tiara Mairani, and Lassie Fitria

    Italian Journal of Food Safety, eISSN: 22397132, Pages: 155-160, Published: 2020 PAGEPress Publications
    The World Health Organization developed five keys to safer food’s guidelines. This study aimed to determine the relationships between food handlers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior to the guideline and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of food served at campus cafeterias. This cross-sectional study was carried out by interviewing 98 food handlers selling food and by testing samples for E. coli. The dependent variable was E. coli contamination, while the independent variables were the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of food handlers based on the guideline. Each independent variable had five sub-variables that corresponded to the guideline. The data were analyzed using chisquare and logistic regression tests. The results showed that food handlers’ knowledge of cooking food thoroughly was significantly related to E. coli contamination (P=0.54 [P<0.05]; OR=2.990;95%CI:1.093– 8.180). Furthermore, the food handlers’ attitudes toward cooking food thoroughly were related to E. coli contamination (P=0.58 [P<0.05]; OR=0.385;95%CI:0.157– 0.944). There were two factors related to E. coli contamination: the food handlers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward the third key of the five keys to food safety.

  • THE HUMAN PATHOGENS CARRIED BY THE COCKROACHES IN THE FOOD-RELATED ENVIRONMENT POTENTIALLY CAUSING A FOODBORNE DISEASES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Rizki Zahrotul Hayati and Dewi Susanna

    Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, ISSN: 16750306, eISSN: 25903829, Pages: 159-170, Published: 2020 Malaysian Public Health Physicians' Association
    Cockroaches are one of the potential vectors on spreading disease and health problems for humans by contaminating foods, ingredients, or food storage. Cause of their habit and life in an unsanitary place, they can carry human pathogens in their body and contaminated. This review aims to know the types and prevalence of human pathogens carried by cockroaches in the food-related environment and discuss the possibility of human pathogens carried by cockroaches that can cause foodborne diseases. This systematic review conforms to the PRISMA guidelines. The initial search was done from four health-related electronic databases (PubMed Central, EBSCOhost, Proquest, and Scopus) for relevant literature on pathogens that isolated from the cockroaches. There are 129 articles identified in the initial search database. After screening and eligibility process, eight articles were identified for this review. It was found that most of the cockroaches captured in/around food handling establishment and human habitation. Furthermore, around 23 species pathogens, predominantly bacteria, were identified from the cockroaches. This review showed that cockroaches carry many pathogens, which can cause severe infections in humans, such as foodborne diseases through contaminated food.

  • THE PRESENCE OF RODENTS INFECTED WITH LEPTOSPIRA BACTERIA IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES AND THE LEPTOSPIROSIS POTENTIAL IN HUMANS: A SYSTEAAATIC REVIEW
    Rusyda Ihwani Tantia Nova, Dewi Susanna, and Gita Miranda Warsito

    Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, ISSN: 16750306, eISSN: 25903829, Pages: 185-196, Published: 2020 Malaysian Public Health Physicians' Association
    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by Leptospira bacteria. It is a global public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this review was to summarize some relevant studies that discuss the presence of rodents and the identification of Leptospira bacteria in rodents. This review also presents findings on the potential reassociation of the presence of rodents with Leptospira bacterial infections to leptospirosis cases in humans. A systematic review methodology used to minimize article selection bias that was likely to occur. During the initial search from three science databases (ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed), 119 articles were retrieved. During the screening process, three articles were excluded due to duplication, 101 articles were excluded based on title and abstract incompatibility with the inclusion criteria, five articles were excluded due to incompatibility of article content with the inclusion criteria, and two articles were excluded because of the ineligibility with the study. In the final screening process, eight articles were chosen to be analyzed. This review found that the presence of rodents infected with Leptospira had the potential to cause leptospirosis in humans through contaminated water and soil or by direct human-to-human contact. The lead factors in the transmission of leptospirosis infection from rodents to humans are activities that take place in wetlands and rice fields, forestry work, and farming activities.

  • Salmonella infection among food handlers at canteens in a campus
    Dewi Susanna, Euis Purwanisari, and Suci Puspita Ratih

    Open Microbiology Journal, eISSN: 18742858, Pages: 213-217, Published: 2020 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
    Background: Salmonella is one of the pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate food through cross-contamination (less hygiene of handlers and environment). In a campus, food management and food handlers have a very important role in the contamination of microorganisms, which can lead to the incidence of foodborne diseases. Objective: This study aimed to assess the incidence of salmonella infections among food handlers at a campus canteen in Depok City, Indonesia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in May-June 2017. The population of this study was all food handlers working in the canteen (N=260). The data were obtained through interviews and observation of the characteristics and behaviors of the food handlers. Blood samples were also collected from 49 food handlers (n=49). Results: This study revealed that 61.2% of food handlers included in the age group were not at risk, the proportion of female food-handlers was slightly more than men (51%), the majority of them were low educated (59.2%), and all respondents had never given typhoid immunization. The results of the fecal examination revealed that two food handlers had typhoid. In addition, the behavior and personal hygiene of most of the handlers are poor. Environmental factors such as canteen sanitation facilities are mostly qualified, and most of the food handlers have no history of contact with animals. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant relationship between characteristics, behavior, personal hygiene, sanitation facilities, and contact history with animals against pathogenic bacterial infections.

  • Hygiene and sanitation challenge for covid-19 prevention in Indonesia
    Sang Gede Purnama and Dewi Susanna

    Kesmas, ISSN: 19077505, eISSN: 24600601, Pages: 6-13, Published: 2020 Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
    The case of Covid-19 in Indonesia continues to increase, transmitted directly and indirectly. Hygiene and sanitation approaches are needed for prevention. the purpose of this review is to review how the transmission COVID-19, the challenges of Indonesia, and the policy of COVID-19 prevention with hygiene and sanitation approaches. The results show Indonesia's challenges namely urban area density, air pollution, and smokers, low hand washing habits, low access to clean water and drinking water, open defecation behavior, limited personal protective equipment. COVID-19 control policy with the hygiene sanitation approach is carried out with 4 factors namely personal protect equipment, health education, personal hygiene, and sanitation.

  • Measuring Escherichia coli in foods and beverages towards certification of cafeteria in campus
    Dewi Susanna, Yvonne M. Indrawani, Zakianis, Tris Eryando, and Aria Kusuma

    Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, ISSN: 09760245, eISSN: 09765506, Pages: 364-366, Published: March 2019 Diva Enterprises Private Limited

  • Consumption of salted fish and hypertension in the area of salted fish industry
    Dewi Susanna, Arni Widiarsih, Tris Eryando, Nopa Arlianti, and Ayu Indriyani

    Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, ISSN: 09760245, eISSN: 09765506, Pages: 367-371, Published: March 2019 Diva Enterprises Private Limited
    In Indonesia, South of Sumatera province is the second position of the highest prevalence of hypertension for Sumatera region after Bangka Belitung province the first. Palembang City is the quite big fish producer city, such as home industry producing salted fish. This study aimed to analyse the association between consuming salted fish and hypertension incidence. The cross-sectional design was conducted in 5 Ulu Subdistrict, Palembang City, South Sumatera Province in April-June 2016 and involved 90 subjects as sample taken by using cluster method. Systole and diastole blood pressure measurement used sphygmanometer brand ABN and stethoscope conducted by trained nurses. Sample taking of salted fish sold in 5 Ulu Subdistrict that was most consumed from each neighbourhood/RT selected as sample was then taken as much as 250 gram, further samples were sent to and the NaCl level was to be checked at Faculty of Fisheries Product Technology, Bogor Agricultural Institute. Variables that would be examined were variable salted fish consumption with hypertension. Data was analysed with chi square test. There was not association between consuming salted fish with high level of NaCl and normal level to suffer hypertension in the area of salted fish production (p value> 0.05). People who consumed salted fish and in the area of salted fish production have the risk to suffer hypertension with those consume salted fish in normal.

  • Current management of household hazardous waste (HHW) in the Asian region
    Agni Amurbatami Manggali and Dewi Susanna

    Reviews on Environmental Health, ISSN: 00487554, Published: 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH
    Abstract Background This review intends to explore the household hazardous waste (HHW) generation rates, HHW management, and people’s awareness regarding HHW in Asian countries based on the economic levels using the available published articles. Methods This is a systematic review of the scientific literature based on several databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, Sage Journals, and Elsevier’s Science Direct from 2008 to 2018. Results HHW generation rates in various Asian cities do not seem to be influenced by the countries’ financial status, except for e-waste. The variety in HHW generation rates among Asian countries might be due to various reasons, which include differences in (1) sampling frame/locations; (2) sampling size; (3) study duration; (4) seasons; (5) study year; and (6) HHW definition/composition. Governmental intervention programs on HHW management have been implemented in some of the Asian countries, mostly in high and upper-middle income groups although misconducts are still found. There is a tendency for economically developed countries to ship their e-waste to less-developed countries, where the system relies heavily on the informal sectors where unsafe treatments are often discovered. Low level of awareness regarding HHW risks is mostly identified in the lower-middle income group. However, even though high and upper-middle income groups have a better awareness of HHW, many people do not entirely follow the recommended practices. Conclusion The lack of enforced regulation and proper treatment infrastructure may lead to HHW being mixed with general household waste, which is found in many Asian countries, despite their income levels. In addition, a good awareness of HHW does not guarantee proper handling of it.

  • The condition of sanitation facilities with Wscherichia coli contamination on food at university cafeteria 2015
    Bellini Simangunsong and Dewi Susanna

    Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, ISSN: 09760245, eISSN: 09765506, Pages: 350-353, Published: January 2019 Diva Enterprises Private Limited

  • Borax content in foods sold in a campus and its trader characteristics
    Fany Saymona Fauzi and Dewi Susanna

    Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, ISSN: 09760245, eISSN: 09765506, Pages: 346-349, Published: January 2019 Diva Enterprises Private Limited

  • Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on changes in smoking behaviour in Asia: A literature review 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services
    Suci Puspita Ratih and Dewi Susanna

    BMC Public Health, eISSN: 14712458, Published: 11 October 2018 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    BackgroundSeveral Asian countries have implemented pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs as suggested by the World Health Organization with various policies based on countries’ systems. The study is aimed to analyse multiple research studies on the perceived effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warnings as a deterrent to smoking intention and as a stimulant of smoking behaviour in smokers and non-smokers in Asian countries.MethodPeer-reviewed articles were identified through multiple science databases indexed by Scopus, MEDLINE or PubMed. The review was limited to articles that reported original research findings, were conducted in Asian countries and were available for review by January 2010. A PRISMA Flow diagram was used to identify the articles through the process of data screening and extractions.ResultA total of 14 original articles which met the criteria were included in the review, consisting of 12 quantitative studies and 2 studies with both quantitative and qualitative methods from 17 jurisdictions. The reviewed studies found that pictorial health warnings were associated with a greater perception of salience (reading and noticing the warning), emotional effects, and cognitive increase. Additionally, in the reviewed studies, pictorial health warnings were perceived as more effective in deterring smoking initiation and encouraging smoking cessation than text-only warnings. Several studies also evaluated the effectiveness of a new pictorial warning compared with the old one. However, the relevance of refreshing the pictures of pictorial health warnings and the length of the effective period of the implementation of pictorial health warnings were less frequently studied.ConclusionPictorial health warnings perceived as more effective in deterring smoking initiation among non-smokers and as well as in stimulating smoking cessation among smokers. Future studies on pictorial health warnings should study the relevance of changing or refreshing pictorial health warning on cigarette packages in a period of time.

  • The correlation between the storage of food ingredients before preparation and leftover or unprocessed ingredient storage to Escherichia coli contamination in campus' food service
    International Journal of Tropical Medicine, ISSN: 18163319, eISSN: 1818779X, Pages: 10-16, Published: 18 August 2015

  • Fly density and environmental factors in street vendor foods and its contamination with Escherichia coli
    Dewi Susanna and Y.M. Indrawani

    Microbes in Applied Research: Current Advances and Challenges, Malaga, Spain, 14 - 16 September 2011, Pages: 263-267, Published: 1 January 2012 WORLD SCIENTIFIC

  • The level of Escherichia coli contamination in foods and drinks sold at canteens campus
    Dewi Susanna, Tris Eryando, and Yvonne M. Indrawani

    Medical Journal of Indonesia, ISSN: 08531773, eISSN: 22528083, Pages: 66-70, Published: February 2011 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia
    Background: Bacterial contamination is a common phenomenon in foods served in campus canteens and my cause physical illness which will affect academic activity. The aim of this study was to rank the level of Escherichia coli contamination in food and drink in campus canteens. Methods: Forty nine (49) foods and 24 types of drink were examined using conventional agar broth method for calculation of most probable number (MPN). The steps of the mothod were presumptive test for coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli , confirmes test for coliforms, fecal coli and E. coli and then completed test for E. coli . An analysis for contamination by E. coli in meals, utensils, and on the hands of the server was also undertaken. The data analyzed in percentage and rank all type of foods and drinks, also rank based on the location. Results: Almost all type of meals was contaminated. Meals with chili sauce were the most risky from the contamination of E. coli (90.15 %), then followed by dry meals (38.89%), while the wet meals were the the most unrisky meals. In  drinks, the highest was lacy juice, followed by jambu (guava) juice, then Sirsak and Orange juices on the third rank, while the mango juice was the lowest contamination. Melon juice, cappucino and fruit-coctail did not have E. coli contamination. Conclusion: The contamination in the top three rank of contamination could be from the utensils used and foodhandler. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:66-70) Keywords: campus, canteen, drink, Escherichia coli, food