Paul E. Spector

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Courtesy Distinguished Professor Emeritus, College of Information Systems and Management, Muma College of Business
University of South Florida



PhD, 1975 Industrial and Organizational Psychology, University of South Florida


Human Resources, Organizational Behavior, Research Methodology


Scholar Citations


Scholar h-index


Scholar i10-index


  • Do social features help in video-centric online learning platforms? A social presence perspective
    SA Andel, T de Vreede, PE Spector, B Padmanabhan, VK Singh, ...
    Computers in Human Behavior 113, 106505 2020

  • Job satisfaction and firm performance: Can employees’ job satisfaction change the trajectory of a firm’s performance?
    SR Kessler, L Lucianetti, S Pindek, Z Zhu, PE Spector
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 50 (10), 563-572 2020

  • Employee to leader crossover of workload and physical strain.
    S Pindek, L Lucianetti, SR Kessler, PE Spector
    International Journal of Stress Management 2020

  • Mastering the Use of Control Variables: the Hierarchical Iterative Control (HIC) Approach
    PE Spector
    Journal of Business and Psychology, 1-14 2020

  • 9 Emotion and Various Forms of Job Performance
    PE Spector
    The Cambridge Handbook of Workplace Affect, 120 2020

  • Workdays are not created equal: Job satisfaction and job stressors across the workweek
    S Pindek, ZE Zhou, SR Kessler, A Krajcevska, PE Spector
    Human Relations, 0018726720924444 2020

  • Split roles in peer reviewing
    PE Spector
    Industrial and Organizational Psychology 13 (1), 68-71 2020

  • Information security climate and the assessment of information security risk among healthcare employees
    SR Kessler, S Pindek, G Kleinman, SA Andel, PE Spector
    Health informatics journal 26 (1), 461-473 2020

  • “Walking the talk”: the role of frontline supervisors in preventing workplace accidents
    SR Kessler, L Lucianetti, S Pindek, PE Spector
    European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-12 2020

  • Examining temporal precedence between customer mistreatment and customer-directed counterproductive work behavior.
    ML Arvan, Y Shimon, S Pindek, SR Kessler, PE Spector
    International Journal of Stress Management 2020

  • Introduction: Issues in the aggregation of climate scores
    PE Spector
    Journal of Organizational Behavior 40 (9-10), 1045-1045 2019

  • Is cyberloafing more complex than we originally thought? Cyberloafing as a coping response to workplace aggression exposure
    SA Andel, SR Kessler, S Pindek, G Kleinman, PE Spector
    Computers in Human Behavior 101, 124-130 2019

  • The spillover effects of coworker, supervisor, and outsider workplace incivility on work‐to‐family conflict: A weekly diary design
    ZE Zhou, LL Meier, PE Spector
    Journal of Organizational Behavior 40 (9-10), 1000-1012 2019

  • Too good for your job? Disentangling the relationships between objective overqualification, perceived overqualification, and job dissatisfaction
    ML Arvan, S Pindek, SA Andel, PE Spector
    Journal of Vocational Behavior 115, 103323 2019

  • Helping may be Harming: unintended negative consequences of providing social support
    CE Gray, PE Spector, KN Lacey, BG Young, ST Jacobsen, MR Taylor
    Work & Stress, 1-27 2019

  • The Effects of Attribution Style and Stakeholder Role on Blame for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
    SR Kessler, KT Mahoney, B Randolph-Seng, MJ Martinko, PE Spector
    Business & Society 58 (8), 1572-1598 2019

  • Introduction: The challenge–hindrance stressor model
    PE Spector
    Journal of Organizational Behavior 8 (40), 947-948 2019

  • When antecedent becomes consequent: An examination of the temporal order of job dissatisfaction and verbal aggression exposure in a longitudinal study
    SA Andel, S Pindek, PE Spector
    Work & Stress 33 (4), 334-350 2019

  • Customer Service Stress: A Meta-Analysis of Customer Mistreatment
    ML Arvan, RC Dreibelbis, PE Spector
    Examining the Role of Well-being in the Marketing Discipline 2019

  • From Apples and Cases to Barrels and Orchards: Macro-Level Drivers of Workplace Abuse
    DJ Howard, T Koehler, JL Raver, VL Roberts
    Academy of Management Proceedings 2019 (1), 12323 2019


  • Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences
    PE Spector
    Sage publications 1997
    Citations: 9309

  • The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis
    Y Cohen-Charash, PE Spector
    Organizational behavior and human decision processes 86 (2), 278-321 2001
    Citations: 4933

  • Method variance in organizational research: truth or urban legend?
    PE Spector
    Organizational research methods 9 (2), 221-232 2006
    Citations: 3810

  • Summated rating scale construction: An introduction
    PE Spector
    Sage 1992
    Citations: 3578

  • Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey
    PE Spector
    American journal of community psychology 13 (6), 693-713 1985
    Citations: 2854

  • Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: interpersonal conflict at work scale, organizational constraints scale, quantitative workload inventory
    PE Spector, SM Jex
    Journal of occupational health psychology 3 (4), 356 1998
    Citations: 2218

  • Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice
    PE Spector
    John Wiley & Sons Inc 2006
    Citations: 2036

  • Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work
    PE Spector
    Human relations 39 (11), 1005-1016 1986
    Citations: 1830

  • Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions
    S Fox, PE Spector, D Miles
    Journal of vocational behavior 59 (3), 291-309 2001
    Citations: 1745

  • Behavior in organizations as a function of employee's locus of control.
    PE Spector
    Psychological bulletin 91 (3), 482 1982
    Citations: 1584

  • Development of the work locus of control scale
    PE Spector
    Journal of occupational psychology 61 (4), 335-340 1988
    Citations: 1468

  • An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior
    PE Spector, S Fox
    Human resource management review 12 (2), 269-292 2002
    Citations: 1428

  • Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method
    PE Spector
    Journal of organizational behavior, 385-392 1994
    Citations: 1414

  • The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal?
    PE Spector, S Fox, LM Penney, K Bruursema, A Goh, S Kessler
    Journal of vocational behavior 68 (3), 446-460 2006
    Citations: 1340

  • A model of work frustration–aggression
    S Fox, PE Spector
    Journal of organizational behavior 20 (6), 915-931 1999
    Citations: 1280

  • Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem?
    PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 72 (3), 438 1987
    Citations: 1238

  • Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino model.
    CE Michaels, PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 67 (1), 53 1982
    Citations: 1120

  • Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity
    LM Penney, PE Spector
    Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial 2005
    Citations: 1070

  • Psicologia nas organizaes
    PE Spector
    Saraiva Educao SA 2009
    Citations: 1026

  • Unemployment, job satisfaction, and employee turnover: A meta-analytic test of the Muchinsky model.
    JM Carsten, PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 72 (3), 374 1987
    Citations: 996