Paul E. Spector

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Courtesy Distinguished Professor Emeritus, College of Information Systems and Management, Muma College of Business
University of South Florida



PhD, 1975 Industrial and Organizational Psychology, University of South Florida


Human Resources, Organizational Behavior, Research Methodology


Scholar Citations


Scholar h-index


Scholar i10-index


  • The effects of industry risk level on safety training outcomes: a meta-analysis of intervention studies
    D Hutchinson, G Luria, S Pindek, P Spector
    Safety science 152, 105594 2022

  • Adding fuel to the fire: The exacerbating effects of calling intensity on the relationship between emotionally disturbing work and employee health.
    SA Andel, S Pindek, PE Spector, RP Crowe, RE Cash, A Panchal
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2022

  • How Can Organizational Leaders Help? Examining the Effectiveness of Leaders’ Support During a Crisis
    CE Gray, PE Spector, JE Wells, SR Bianchi, C Ocana-Dominguez, ...
    Journal of Business and Psychology, 1-23 2022

  • Job Satisfaction: From Assessment to Intervention
    PE Spector
    Routledge 2022

  • Context Matters: The Implications of Workplace Envy Across Contexts
    L Atwater, J Belinne, Y Cohen-Charash, MF Gonzalez, KS Johnson, ...
    Academy of Management Proceedings 2022 (1), 13604 2022

  • The lingering curvilinear effect of workload on employee rumination and negative emotions: A diary study
    S Pindek, ZE Zhou, SR Kessler, A Krajcevska, PE Spector
    Work & Stress, 1-20 2021

  • Will the real mistreatment please stand up? Examining the assumptions and measurement of bullying and incivility
    AE Nixon, M Arvan, PE Spector
    Work & Stress 35 (4), 398-422 2021

  • Mastering the use of control variables: The hierarchical iterative control (HIC) approach
    PE Spector
    Journal of Business and Psychology 36 (5), 737-750 2021

  • Workdays are not created equal: Job satisfaction and job stressors across the workweek
    S Pindek, ZE Zhou, SR Kessler, A Krajcevska, PE Spector
    Human Relations 74 (9), 1447-1472 2021

  • Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice
    PE Spector
    John Wiley & Sons 2021

  • Remotely stressed: Investigating remote work stressors, employee burnout, and supervisor support
    K Lacey, C Gray, PE Spector
    Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1), 15896 2021

  • Research Methods for Studying Workplace Ostracism
    PE Spector, DJ Howard
    Workplace Ostracism, 269-292 2021

  • Teaching for retention: IO students should not be the shoemaker’s children
    PE Spector
    Industrial and Organizational Psychology 13 (4), 568-571 2020

  • Do social features help in video-centric online learning platforms? A social presence perspective
    SA Andel, T de Vreede, PE Spector, B Padmanabhan, VK Singh, ...
    Computers in Human Behavior 113, 106505 2020

  • Employee to leader crossover of workload and physical strain.
    S Pindek, L Lucianetti, SR Kessler, PE Spector
    International Journal of Stress Management 27 (4), 326 2020

  • Relations between exercise and employee responses to work stressors: A summary of two studies
    SM Jex, PE Spector, DM Gudanowski, RA Newman
    Occupational Stress, 283-301 2020

  • Job satisfaction and firm performance: Can employees’ job satisfaction change the trajectory of a firm’s performance?
    SR Kessler, L Lucianetti, S Pindek, Z Zhu, PE Spector
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 50 (10), 563-572 2020

  • Helping may be harming: Unintended negative consequences of providing social support
    CE Gray, PE Spector, KN Lacey, BG Young, ST Jacobsen, MR Taylor
    Work & Stress 34 (4), 359-385 2020

  • Examining temporal precedence between customer mistreatment and customer-directed counterproductive work behavior.
    ML Arvan, Y Shimon, S Pindek, SR Kessler, PE Spector
    International Journal of Stress Management 27 (3), 281 2020

  • Emotion and various forms of job performance
    PE Spector
    The Cambridge handbook of workplace affect, 120-130 2020


  • Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences
    PE Spector
    Sage 1997
    Citations: 11336

  • The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis
    Y Cohen-Charash, PE Spector
    Organizational behavior and human decision processes 86 (2), 278-321 2001
    Citations: 5850

  • Method variance in organizational research: truth or urban legend?
    PE Spector
    Organizational research methods 9 (2), 221-232 2006
    Citations: 4329

  • Summated rating scale construction: An introduction
    PE Spector
    Sage 1992
    Citations: 4290

  • Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey
    PE Spector
    American journal of community psychology 13 (6), 693 1985
    Citations: 3567

  • Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: interpersonal conflict at work scale, organizational constraints scale, quantitative workload inventory
    PE Spector, SM Jex
    Journal of occupational health psychology 3 (4), 356 1998
    Citations: 2706

  • Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice
    PE Spector
    John Wiley & Sons 2021
    Citations: 2543

  • Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work
    PE Spector
    Human relations 39 (11), 1005-1016 1986
    Citations: 2190

  • Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions
    S Fox, PE Spector, D Miles
    Journal of vocational behavior 59 (3), 291-309 2001
    Citations: 2112

  • Behavior in organizations as a function of employee's locus of control.
    PE Spector
    Psychological bulletin 91 (3), 482 1982
    Citations: 1837

  • An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior
    PE Spector, S Fox
    Human resource management review 12 (2), 269-292 2002
    Citations: 1774

  • Development of the work locus of control scale
    PE Spector
    Journal of occupational psychology 61 (4), 335-340 1988
    Citations: 1740

  • The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal?
    PE Spector, S Fox, LM Penney, K Bruursema, A Goh, S Kessler
    Journal of vocational behavior 68 (3), 446-460 2006
    Citations: 1717

  • Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method
    PE Spector
    Journal of organizational behavior, 385-392 1994
    Citations: 1596

  • Causes of employee turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino model.
    CE Michaels, PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 67 (1), 53 1982
    Citations: 1511

  • A model of work frustration–aggression
    S Fox, PE Spector
    Journal of organizational behavior 20 (6), 915-931 1999
    Citations: 1500

  • Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem?
    PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 72 (3), 438 1987
    Citations: 1365

  • Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity
    LM Penney, PE Spector
    Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial 2005
    Citations: 1281

  • The Stressor-Emotion Model of Counterproductive Work Behavior.
    PE Spector, S Fox
    American Psychological Association 2005
    Citations: 1254

  • Unemployment, job satisfaction, and employee turnover: A meta-analytic test of the Muchinsky model.
    JM Carsten, PE Spector
    Journal of applied psychology 72 (3), 374 1987
    Citations: 1163