Timothy Omara

Verified email at gmail.com

Department für Chemie
Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria



                                         

https://researchid.co/proftimo

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Natural products chemistry (ethnomedicine and phytochemistry), environmental and food toxicology

17

Scopus Publications

479

Scholar Citations

11

Scholar h-index

12

Scholar i10-index

Scopus Publications

  • Design and assembly of a domestic water temperature, pH and turbidity monitoring system
    Diana Rita Nanyanzi, Gilbert Gilibrays Ocen, Timothy Omara, Felix Bwire, Davis Matovu, and Twaibu Semwogerere

    BMC Research Notes, eISSN: 17560500, Published: December 2021 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to design a domestic water temperature, pH and turbidity monitoring system that could constantly log temperature, pH and turbidity of water and give alerts in case the parameters are outside the acceptable limits for potable water. Results The system was designed, assembled and performed as expected. The study indicates that the proposed and designed system outperforms the existing manual monitoring system as it can constantly track and store changes in water quality. This could be used to prepare better treatment processes as well as identify problems in the water distribution system early enough.

  • Medicinal plants used as snake venom antidotes in east african community: Review and assessment of scientific evidences
    Timothy Omara, Caroline Kiwanuka, Rania Awad Naiyl, Florence Atieno Opondo, Sadia Benard Otieno, M. L. Ndiege, Immaculate Mbabazi, Winfred Nassazi and Edmond Etimu

    Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences, eISSN: 26514702, Pages: 107-144, Published: March 2021 International Society of Communication and Development Between Universities (ISCDBU)
    Poisonous snake envenomation is a complex neglected health problem implicated in mortality, disability, psychological morbidity, and socio-economic losses recorded worldwide. An antivenin serum, the only medically recommended treatment for snakebites, has several drawbacks including, hypersensitivity, inability to prevent local tissue damage, are scarce and unaffordable in most snakebite endemic areas. In many rural communities all over the world, plants have been utilized for managing snakebites. This review seeks to identify plants reported as antivenom remedies in the East Africa and the scientific studies thereof which could support their use in the treatment of snake envenomation. A review of scientific articles was undertaken to identify information on traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat snake envenomation in East Africa and their antivenom efficacy. A total of 361 plant species were retrieved to have been reported as traditional therapies for snakebites in East Africa. The review identified distinct cases of doctrine of signatures and zoopharmacognosy in snakes using Opilia amentacea, Hugonia castaneifolia and Microglossa pyrifolia respectively. Evaluations of the antivenom efficacy of 44 species (12.2%) have been done globally, and most species found to be effective in neutralizing the lethal activities of snake venoms. Ethnomedicinal plants play a revered holistic role in East African antisnake venom therapy. Conyza sumatrensis, Hyptis pectinata, Justicia betonica, and Maesa lanceolata used to treat specific snakebites merit further studies.

  • Albizia coriaria Welw ex Oliver: a review of its ethnobotany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology
    Timothy Omara, Ambrose K. Kiprop, and Viola J. Kosgei

    Advances in Traditional Medicine, ISSN: 26624052, eISSN: 26624060, Published: 2021 Springer Science and Business Media LLC

  • Intraspecific Variation of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Different Solvent Extracts of Albizia coriaria Leaves from Some Agroecological Zones of Uganda
    Timothy Omara, Ambrose K. Kiprop, and Viola J. Kosgei

    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN: 1741427X, eISSN: 17414288, Volume: 2021, Published: 2021 Hindawi Limited
    Albizia coriaria Welw ex. Oliver is a customary African medicinal plant, which has a long history of utilization in the management of oxidative stress-induced and bacterial diseases. However, there is no report on the phytochemicals, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of its leaves. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the phytochemicals, antioxidant, and antibacterial potential of A. coriaria leaves from Jinja, Kole, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. Shade-dried leaf samples were ground into powder and successively extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and distilled water. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and terpenes as the major secondary metabolites in the extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and total in vitro antioxidant activity were found to be the highest for ethanolic extracts, with the highest contents (101.72 ± 0.22 mg GAE/g DW; 13.23 ± 0.03 mg QE/g DW) and antioxidant potential (IC50 = 18.65 ± 0.06 mg/mL) being for leaves from Mbarara district. Antibacterial activity of the extracts determined by agar disc diffusion method revealed that ethanolic extracts had higher antibacterial activities with mean zones of inhibition of 6.00 ± 1.73 to 10.00 ± 1.73 mm, 5.00 ± 1.00 to 12.30 ± 1.53 mm, 17.00 ± 0.00 to 25.00 ± 2.65 mm, and 9.00 ± 1.73 to 16.00 ± 1.73 mm for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of A. coriaria leaves from Kole and Mbarara had lower antibacterial activities, while aqueous extracts and ethyl acetate extract of leaves from Jinja showed no antibacterial activity. The current study for the first time established that A. coriaria leaves possess therapeutic phytochemicals with significant in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities, which lend credence to their use in traditional management of oxidative stress-induced conditions and bacterial diseases in Uganda. Structural elucidation of the responsible pure compounds for the observed bioactivities as well as toxicity studies of the extracts is recommended.

  • Traditional Medicinal Uses, Phytoconstituents, Bioactivities, and Toxicities of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (Fabaceae): A Systematic Review
    Samuel Baker Obakiro, Ambrose Kiprop, Elizabeth Kigondu, Isaac K’Owino, Mark Peter Odero, Scolastica Manyim, Timothy Omara, Jane Namukobe, Richard Oriko Owor, Yahaya Gavamukulya, and Lydia Bunalema

    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN: 1741427X, eISSN: 17414288, Volume: 2021, Published: 2021 Hindawi Limited
    Background. Many studies have been undertaken on the medicinal values of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (Fabaceae). The details, however, are highly fragmented in different journals, libraries, and other publication media. This study was therefore conducted to provide a comprehensive report on its ethnobotany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemicals, and the available pharmacological evidence supporting its efficacy and safety in traditional medicine. Method. We collected data using a PROSPERO registered systematic review protocol on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology of Erythrina abyssinica from 132 reports that were retrieved from electronic databases. Documented local names, morphology, growth habit and habitat, ethnomedicinal and nonmedicinal uses, diseases treated, parts used, method of preparation and administration, extraction and chemical identity of isolated compounds, and efficacy and toxicity of extracts and isolated compounds were captured. Numerical data were summarized into means, percentages, and frequencies and presented as graphs and tables. Results. Erythrina abyssinica is harvested by traditional herbal medicine practitioners in East, Central, and South African communities to prepare herbal remedies for various human and livestock ailments. These include bacterial and fungal infections, tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, diarrhea, cancer, meningitis, inflammatory diseases, urinary tract infections, wounds, diabetes mellitus, and skin and soft tissue injuries. Different extracts and phytochemicals from parts of E. abyssinica have been scientifically proven to possess anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, antiproliferative, antifungal, antimycobacterial, antidiarrheal, anti-HIV 1, antidiabetic, and antiobesity activities. This versatile pharmacological activity is due to the abundant flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids present in its different parts. Conclusion. Erythrina abyssinica is an important ethnomedicinal plant in Africa harboring useful pharmacologically active phytochemicals against various diseases with significant efficacies and minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. Therefore, this plant should be conserved and its potential to provide novel molecules against diseases be explored further. Clinical trials that evaluate the efficacy and safety of extracts and isolated compounds from E. abyssinica are recommended.

  • The Scourge of Aflatoxins in Kenya: A 60-Year Review (1960 to 2020)
    Timothy Omara, Ambrose K Kiprop, Phanice Wangila, Alex Paul Wacoo, Sarah Kagoya, Papias Nteziyaremye, Mark Peter Odero, Caroline Kiwanuka Nakiguli, and Samuel Baker Obakiro

    Journal of Food Quality, ISSN: 01469428, eISSN: 17454557, Volume: 2021, Published: 2021 Hindawi Limited
    Aflatoxins are endemic in Kenya. The 2004 outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in the country was one of the unprecedented epidemics of human aflatoxin poisoning recorded in mycotoxin history. In this study, an elaborate review was performed to synthesize Kenya’s major findings in relation to aflatoxins, their prevalence, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, prevention, and management in various matrices. Data retrieved indicate that the toxins are primarily biosynthesized by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, with the eastern part of the country reportedly more aflatoxin-prone. Aflatoxins have been reported in maize and maize products (Busaa, chan’gaa, githeri, irio, muthokoi, uji, and ugali), peanuts and its products, rice, cassava, sorghum, millet, yams, beers, dried fish, animal feeds, dairy and herbal products, and sometimes in tandem with other mycotoxins. The highest total aflatoxin concentration of 58,000 μg/kg has been reported in maize. At least 500 acute human illnesses and 200 deaths due to aflatoxins have been reported. The causes and prevalence of aflatoxins have been grossly ascribed to poor agronomic practices, low education levels, and inadequate statutory regulation and sensitization. Low diet diversity has aggravated exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya because maize as a dietetic staple is aflatoxin-prone. Detection and surveillance are only barely adequate, though some exposure assessments have been conducted. There is a need to widen diet diversity as a measure of reducing exposure due to consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods.

  • Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: A systematic review
    Samuel Baker Obakiro, Ambrose Kiprop, Isaac Kowino, Elizabeth Kigondu, Mark Peter Odero, Timothy Omara, and Lydia Bunalema

    Tropical Medicine and Health, ISSN: 13488945, eISSN: 13494147, Published: 14 August 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Objective Many studies on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) using herbal medicines have been undertaken in recent decades in East Africa. The details, however, are highly fragmented. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the reported medicinal plants used to manage TB symptoms, and to analyze scientific reports on their effectiveness and safety. Method A comprehensive literature search was performed in the major electronic databases regarding medicinal plants used in the management of TB in East Africa. A total of 44 reports were retrieved, and data were collected on various aspects of the medicinal plants such as botanical name, family, local names, part(s) used, method of preparation, efficacy, toxicity, and phytochemistry. The data were summarized into percentages and frequencies which were presented as tables and graphs. Results A total of 195 species of plants belonging to 68 families and 144 genera were identified. Most encountered species were from Fabaceae (42.6%), Lamiaceae (19.1%), Asteraceae (16.2%), and Euphorbiaceae (14.7%) families. Only 36 medicinal plants (18.5%) have been screened for antimycobacterial activity. Out of these, 31 (86.1%) were reported to be bioactive with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 47 to 12,500 μg/ml. Most tested plant extracts were found to have acceptable acute toxicity profiles with cytotoxic concentrations on normal mammalian cells greater than 200 μg/ml. The most commonly reported phytochemicals were flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and phenols. Only Tetradenia riparia , Warburgia ugandensis , and Zanthoxylum leprieurii have further undergone isolation and characterization of the pure bioactive compounds. Conclusion East Africa has a rich diversity of medicinal plants that have been reported to be effective in the management of symptoms of TB. More validation studies are required to promote the discovery of antimycobacterial drugs and to provide evidence for standardization of herbal medicine use.

  • Effects of industrial effluents on the quality of water in Namanve stream, Kampala Industrial and Business Park, Uganda
    Christopher Angiro, Patrick P’Odyek Abila, and Timothy Omara

    BMC Research Notes, eISSN: 17560500, Published: 16 April 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Objective Kampala Industrial and Business Park (KIBP) is one of the premier and the most successful Ugandan industrial complexes that impact the inner Murchison bay of Lake Victoria. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of industrial effluents on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of water taken from four different sites along Namanve stream in KIBP, Wakiso district, Uganda. Results All the water quality parameters were below WHO maximum permissible limits except turbidity, electrical conductivity and Escherichia coli count. Mean values of the monitored water quality parameters increased from the point of effluent discharge downstream of Namanve stream.

  • Antivenin plants used for treatment of snakebites in Uganda: Ethnobotanical reports and pharmacological evidences
    Timothy Omara, Sarah Kagoya, Abraham Openy, Tom Omute, Stephen Ssebulime, Kibet Mohamed Kiplagat, and Ocident Bongomin

    Tropical Medicine and Health, ISSN: 13488945, eISSN: 13494147, Published: 11 February 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    AbstractSnakebite envenomation is a serious public health concern in rural areas of Uganda. Snakebites are poorly documented in Uganda because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first-line defense for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have reported that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to identify antivenin plants in Uganda and some pharmacological evidence supporting their use. A literature survey done in multidisciplinary databases revealed that 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera and 42 families are used for the treatment of snakebites in Uganda. The majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (31%), Euphorbiaceae (14%), Asteraceae (12%), Amaryllidaceae (10%) and Solanaceae (10%). The main growth habit of the species is shrubs (41%), trees (33%) and herbs (18%). Antivenin extracts are usually prepared from roots (54%) and leaves (23%) through decoctions, infusions, powders, and juices, and are administered orally (67%) or applied topically (17%). The most frequently encountered species were Allium cepa, Carica papaya, Securidaca longipedunculata, Harrisonia abyssinica, and Nicotiana tabacum. Species with global reports of tested antivenom activity included Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Basella alba, Capparis tomentosa, Carica papaya, Cassia occidentalis, Jatropa carcus, Vernonia cinereal, Bidens pilosa, Hoslundia opposita, Maytensus senegalensis, Securinega virosa, and Solanum incanum. There is need to identify and evaluate the antivenom compounds in the claimed plants.

  • Physicochemical quality of water and health risks associated with consumption of African lung fish (Protopterus annectens) from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers, Rwanda
    Timothy Omara, Papias Nteziyaremye, Solomon Akaganyira, Dickens Waswa Opio, Lucy Nyambura Karanja, Decrah Moraa Nyangena, Betty Jematia Kiptui, Remish Ogwang, Stephen Mark Epiaka, Abigael Jepchirchir, and Alfayo Maiyo

    BMC Research Notes, eISSN: 17560500, Published: 10 February 2020 Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Abstract Objective To determine the quality of water, heavy metal content of edible muscles of a piscivorous fish (Protopterus annectens) and assess the health risks associated with using water and consumption of P. annectens from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers of Rwanda. Results All the water quality parameters were within World Health Organization’s acceptable limits except total nitrogen, iron, manganese and lead levels. Edible muscles of Protopterus annectens contained 272.8 ± 0.36, 292.2 ± 0.25, 8.8 ± 0.36, 135.2 ± 0.15, 148.0 ± 0.21 and 432. 0 ± 0.50 mg/kg of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and lead at Ruliba station and 336.0 ± 0.70, 302.6 ± 1.22, 6.4 ± 0.26, 44.7 ± 0.20, 138.2 ± 0.17 and 302.4 ± 1.50 mg/kg of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and lead at Kirinda bridge of Nyabarongo river. Health risk assessments indicated that though ingestion and dermal contact with heavy metals in water from the rivers may not cause obvious health effects, consumption of Protopterus annectens from Nyabarongo river may lead to deleterious health effects.

  • Bioaccumulation of priority trace metals in edible muscles of West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens Owen, 1839) from Nyabarongo River, Rwanda
    Papias Nteziyaremye and Timothy Omara

    Cogent Environmental Science, eISSN: 23311843, Published: 2020 Informa UK Limited
    Abstract Heavy metal pollution and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems present serious threats to sustainability. In the current study, the heavy metal content of water and edible muscles of a piscivorous fish (Protopterus annectens) as well as bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in fish tissues were evaluated. Samples of water (n = 6) and fish (n = 6) were taken from Kirinda bridge and Ruliba station on Nyabarongo river and analyzed by UV spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations in water were: iron (0.63 ± 0.02 and 1.61 ± 0.03 mg/kg), manganese (0.53 ± 0.002 mg/kg at Ruliba station), chromium (0.06 ± 0.002 mg/kg at Kirinda bridge), cadmium (0.106 ± 0.002 mg/kg at Ruliba station) and lead (0.75 ± 0.02 and 0.051 ± 0.01 mg/kg). Edible muscles of Protopterus annectens contained 336.0 ± 0.70, 302.6 ± 1.22, 6.4 ± 0.26, 44.7 ± 0.20, 138.2 ± 0.17 and 302.4 ± 1.50 mg/kg of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and lead at Kirinda bridge and 272.8 ± 0.36, 292.2 ± 0.25, 8.8 ± 0.36, 135.2 ± 0.15, 148.0 ± 0.21 and 432. 0 ± 0.50 mg/kg of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and lead, respectively, at Ruliba station. Most of the heavy metal contents were above the recommended levels. Bioaccumulation factors recorded in Protopterus annectens ranged from 403.2 to 15,130 L/kg, implying that consumption of this fish could pose deleterious health risks. The study suggested that P. annectens could be used as a sentinel organism for biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

  • Antimalarial Plants Used across Kenyan Communities
    Timothy Omara

    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN: 1741427X, eISSN: 17414288, Volume: 2020, Published: 2020 Hindawi Limited
    Malaria is one of the serious health problems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Its treatment has been met with chronic failure due to pathogenic resistance to the currently available drugs. This review attempts to compile phytotherapeutical information on antimalarial plants in Kenya based on electronic data. A comprehensive web search was conducted in multidisciplinary databases, and a total of 286 plant species from 75 families, distributed among 192 genera, were retrieved. Globally, about 139 (48.6%) of the species have been investigated for antiplasmodial (18%) or antimalarial activities (97.1%) with promising results. However, there is no record on the antimalarial activity of about 51.4% of the species used although they could be potential sources of antimalarial remedies. Analysis of ethnomedicinal recipes indicated that mainly leaves (27.7%) and roots (19.4%) of shrubs (33.2%), trees (30.1%), and herbs (29.7%) are used for preparation of antimalarial decoctions (70.5%) and infusions (5.4%) in Kenya. The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous antimalarial plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern. Further research is required to validate the therapeutic potential of antimalarial compounds from the unstudied claimed species. Although some species were investigated for their antimalarial efficacies, their toxicity and safety aspects need to be further investigated.

  • Plants Used in Antivenom Therapy in Rural Kenya: Ethnobotany and Future Perspectives
    Timothy Omara

    Journal of Toxicology, ISSN: 16878191, eISSN: 16878205, Volume: 2020, Published: 2020 Hindawi Limited
    Snake envenomation is one of the neglected tropical diseases which has left an intolerable death toll and severe socioeconomic losses in Kenya. In a continued effort to identify some antiophidic East African botanical species, this study generated ethnobotanical information on antivenom plants reported in Kenya, with a view to identify potential species which could be subjected to in vitro and clinical studies for possible development into antivenoms. Data retrieved through searches done in multidisciplinary databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Scientific Electronic Library Online) indicated that 54 plant species belonging to 45 genera, distributed among 27 families, are used for the management of snakebites in Kenya. Most species belonged to the family Asteraceae (11%), Malvaceae (11%), Fabaceae (9%), Annonaceae (6%), Combretaceae (6%), and Lamiaceae (6%). The main growth habit of the species is as herbs (35%), shrubs (33%), and trees (28%). Ethnomedicinal preparations used in treating snake poisons are usually from leaves (48%), roots (26%), and stem bark (8%) through decoctions, infusions, powders, and juices which are applied topically or administered orally. The most frequently encountered species were Combretum collinum, Euclea divinorum, Fuerstia africana, Grewia fallax, Microglossa pyrifolia, Solanecio mannii, and Solanum incanum. Indigenous knowledge on medicinal antivenom therapy in Kenya is humongous, and therefore studies to isolate and evaluate the antivenom compounds in the claimed plants are required to enable their confident use in antivenom therapy alongside commercial antivenin sera.

  • Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies
    Timothy Omara, Ambrose K. Kiprop, Rose C. Ramkat, Jackson Cherutoi, Sarah Kagoya, Decrah Moraa Nyangena, Tsedey Azeze Tebo, Papias Nteziyaremye, Lucy Nyambura Karanja, Abigael Jepchirchir, Alfayo Maiyo, Betty Jematia Kiptui, Immaculate Mbabazi, Caroline Kiwanuka Nakiguli, Brenda Victoria Nakabuye, and Margaret Chepkemoi Koske

    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN: 1741427X, eISSN: 17414288, Volume: 2020, Published: 2020 Hindawi Limited
    The burden of neoplastic diseases is a significant global health challenge accounting for thousands of deaths. In Uganda, about 32,617 cancer cases were reported in 2018, accompanied by 21,829 deaths. In a view to identify some potential anticancer plant candidates for possible drug development, the current study was designed to compile the inventory of plants with reported anticancer activity used in rural Uganda and the evidences supporting their use in cancer therapy. An electronic survey in multidisciplinary databases revealed that 29 plant species belonging to 28 genera distributed among 24 families have been reported to be used in the management of cancer in Uganda. Anticancer plants were majorly from the families Bignoniaceae (7%), Caricaceae (7%), Fabaceae (7%), Moraceae (7%), and Rutaceae (7%). Most species occur in the wild (52%), though some are cultivated (48%). The growth habit of the plants is as trees (55%) or herbs (45%). Anticancer extracts are usually prepared from leaves (29%), bark (24%), roots (21%), and fruits (13%) through decoctions (53%), as food spices (23%) or pounded to produce ointments that are applied topically (10%).Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkman,Opuntiaspecies,Albizia coriaria(Welw. ex Oliver), Daucus carotaL.,Cyperus alatus(Nees) F. Muell.,Markhamia lutea(Benth.) K. Schum., andOxalis corniculataL. were the most frequently encountered species. As per global reports,Allium sativumL.,Annona muricataL.,Carica papayaL.,Moringa oleiferaLam.,Opuntiaspecies,Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkman, andCatharanthus roseus(L.) G. Don. are the most studied species, with the latter having vincristine and vinblastine anticancer drugs developed from it. Prostate, cervical, breast, and skin cancers are the top traditionally treated malignancies. There is a need to isolate and evaluate the anticancer potential of the bioactive compounds in the unstudied claimed plants, such asCyperus alatus(Nees) F. Muell.,Ficus daweiHutch.,Ficus natalensisHochst., andLovoa trichilioidesHarms, and elucidate their mechanism of anticancer activity.

  • Exponential Disruptive Technologies and the Required Skills of Industry 4.0
    Ocident Bongomin, Gilbert Gilibrays Ocen, Eric Oyondi Nganyi, Alex Musinguzi, and Timothy Omara

    Journal of Engineering (United Kingdom), ISSN: 23144904, eISSN: 23144912, Volume: 2020, Published: 2020 Hindawi Limited
    The 21st century has witnessed precipitous changes spanning from the way of life to the technologies that emerged. We have entered a nascent paradigm shift (industry 4.0) where science fictions have become science facts, and technology fusion is the main driver. Thus, ensuring that any advancement in technology reach and benefit all is the ideal opportunity for everyone. In this study, disruptive technologies of industry 4.0 were explored and quantified in terms of the number of their appearances in published literature. The study aimed at identifying industry 4.0 key technologies which have been ill-defined by previous researchers and to enumerate the required skills of industry 4.0. Comprehensive literature survey covering the field of engineering, production, and management was done in multidisciplinary databases: Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Sage, Taylor & Francis, and Emerald Insight. From the electronic survey, 35 disruptive technologies were quantified and 13 key technologies: Internet of Things, Big Data, 3D printing, Cloud computing, Autonomous robots, Virtual and Augmented reality, Cyber-physical system, Artificial intelligence, Smart sensors, Simulation, Nanotechnology, Drones, and Biotechnology were identified. Both technical and personal skills to be imparted into the human workforce for industry 4.0 were reported. The review identified the need to investigate the capability and the readiness of developing countries in adapting industry 4.0 in terms of the changes in the education systems and industrial manufacturing settings. This study proposes the need to address the integration of industry 4.0 concepts into the current education system.

  • Aflatoxins in Uganda: An Encyclopedic Review of the Etiology, Epidemiology, Detection, Quantification, Exposure Assessment, Reduction, and Control
    Timothy Omara, Winfred Nassazi, Tom Omute, Aburu Awath, Fortunate Laker, Raymond Kalukusu, Bashir Musau, Brenda Victoria Nakabuye, Sarah Kagoya, George Otim, and Eddie Adupa

    International Journal of Microbiology, ISSN: 1687918X, eISSN: 16879198, Volume: 2020, Published: 2020 Hindawi Limited
    Uganda is an agrarian country where farming employs more than 60% of the population. Aflatoxins remain a scourge in the country, unprecedentedly reducing the nutritional and economic value of agricultural foods. This review was sought to synthetize the country’s major findings in relation to the mycotoxins’ etiology, epidemiology, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, control, and reduction in different matrices. Electronic results indicate that aflatoxins in Uganda are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and have been reported in maize, sorghum, sesame, beans, sunflower, millet, peanuts, and cassava. The causes and proliferation of aflatoxigenic contamination of Ugandan foods have been largely due to poor pre-, peri-, and postharvest activities, poor government legislation, lack of awareness, and low levels of education among farmers, entrepreneurs, and consumers on this plague. Little diet diversity has exacerbated the risk of exposure to aflatoxins in Uganda because most of the staple foods are aflatoxin-prone. On the detection and control, these are still marginal, though some devoted scholars have devised and validated a sensitive portable device for on-site aflatoxin detection in maize and shown that starter cultures used for making some cereal-based beverages have the potential to bind aflatoxins. More efforts should be geared towards awareness creation and vaccination against hepatitis B and hepatitis A to reduce the risk of development of liver cancer among the populace.

  • Mercuric pollution of surface water, superficial sediments, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica Linnaeus 1758 [Cichlidae]) and yams (Dioscorea alata) in auriferous areas of Namukombe stream, Syanyonja, Busia, Uganda
    Timothy Omara, Shakilah Karungi, Raymond Kalukusu, BrendaVictoria Nakabuye, Sarah Kagoya, and Bashir Musau

    PeerJ, eISSN: 21678359, Volume: 2019, Published: 2019 PeerJ
    The mercury content and the contamination characteristics of water, sediments, edible muscles of a non-piscivorous fish (Oreochromis nilotica Linnaeus 1758 [Cichlidae]) and yams (Dioscorea alata) from Namukombe stream in Busia gold district of Uganda were evaluated. Human health risk assessment from consumption of contaminated fish and yams as well as contact with contaminated sediments from the stream were performed. Forty-eight (48) samples of water (n = 12), sediments (n = 12), fish (n = 12) and yams (n = 12) were taken at intervals of 10 m from three gold recovery sites located at up, middle and down sluices of the stream and analyzed for total mercury (THg) using US EPA method 1631. Results (presented as means  ±  standard deviations) showed that water in the stream is polluted with mercury in the range of < detection limit to 1.21  ±  0.040 mg/L while sediments contain mean THg from < detection limit to 0.14  ±  0.040 ugg−1. Mean THg content of the edible muscles of O. nilotica ranged from < detection limit to 0.11 ± 0.014 ugg−1while D. alata contained from < detection limit to 0.30  ±  0.173 ugg−1mean THg. The estimated daily intake ranged from 0.0049 ugg−1day−1 to 0.0183 ugg−1day−1 and 0.0200 ugg−1day−1 to 0.0730 ugg−1day−1 for fish consumed by adults and children respectively. The corresponding health risk indices ranged from 0.0123 to 0.0458 and 0.0500 to 0.1830. Estimated daily intake was from 0.0042 ugg−1day−1 to 0.1279 ugg−1day−1 and 0.0130 ugg−1day−1 to 0.3940 ugg−1day−1 for D. alata consumed by adults and children respectively. The health risk indices recorded were from 0.011 to 0.320 and 0.033 to 0.985 for adults and children respectively. The mean THg content of the sediments, edible muscles of O. nilotica and D. alata were within acceptable WHO/US EPA limits. About 91.7% of the water samples had mean THg above US EPA maximum permissible limit for mercury in drinking water. Consumption of D. alata grown within 5 m radius up sluice of Namukombe stream may pose deleterious health risks as reflected by the health risk index of 0.985 being very close to one. From the pollution and risk assessments, mercury use should be delimited in Syanyonja artisanal gold mining areas. A solution to abolish mercury-based gold mining in the area needs to be sought as soon as possible to avert the accentuating health, economic and ecological disaster arising from the continuous discharge of mercury into the surrounding areas. Other mercury-free gold recovering methods such as use of borax, sluice boxes and direct panning should be encouraged. Waste management system for contaminated wastewater, used mercury bottles and tailings should be centralized.

RECENT SCHOLAR PUBLICATIONS

  • Phytochemical screening, total polyphenolic content, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Albizia coriaria Welw ex. Oliver flowers
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei
    Letters in Applied NanoBioScience 12 (5) 2022

  • Isolation and characterization of compounds in ethanolic extract of Albizia coriaria (Welw ex. Oliver) leaves: a further evidence of its ethnomedicinal diversity
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre 46 (1), 30 2022

  • Oxytetracycline residues in bovine muscles, liver and kidney tissues from selected slaughter facilities in South Western Uganda
    P Kebirungi, A Nyombi, T Omara, C Adaku, E Ntambi
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre 46 (1), 17 2022

  • An application-based framework for curbing mobile phone-related crimes: Results of a preliminary study in Eastern Uganda
    JB Wafula, GG Ocen, D Matovu, AE Alunyu, G Odongtoo, O Bongomin, ...
    Research square 2022

  • Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Rutaceae): Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activities, Toxicity and Clinical Studies
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei, S Kagoya
    Traditional Medicine Research 7 (3) 2022

  • Thermoacoustic sensor-based system for detection of respiratory diseases in chicken (Gallus domesticus L.)
    C Mugide, GG Ocen, T Omara, B Lusiba, T Semwogerere, AE Alunyu
    2022

  • Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis needles against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius
    JM Kirima, T Omara
    Advances in Phytochemistry, Textile and Renewable Energy Research for 2022

  • Synthesis, characterization and computational studies of 2-amino-4- substituted thiazoles, their divalent nickel and cobalt complexes and molecular docking studies of their
    N Sarikavakli, HC Syleyici, E Fatma, T Omara
    Preprints 1, 1-22 2022

  • Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology and Toxicity of Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae): A Review
    T Omara, BO Sadia, I Mbabazi, A Okwir
    Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry 9 (2), 355-372 2022

  • Leaching of Lead, Chromium and Copper into Drinks Placed in Plastic Cups at Different Conditions
    O Ahimbisibwe, D Byamugisha, P Mukasa, T Omara, E Ntambi
    American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 13 (2), 9-19 2022

  • Medicinal plants used for treating cancer in Kenya: An ethnopharmacological overview
    T Omara, MP Odero, SB Obakiro
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre 46 2022

  • Response Surface Optimized removal of Reactive Red HE3b from an aqueous solution using pyrolytically biochar derived from Euclea divinorum waste biomass
    MP Odero, S Manyim, T Omara
    Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training 7 (1), 190-197 2022

  • Physicochemical quality of water from Chuho springs, Kisoro district, Uganda
    G Nkurunziza, T Omara, CK Nakiguli, P Mukasa, D Byamugisha, E Ntambi
    French-Ukrainian Journal of Chemistry 9 (02), 12-26 2021

  • Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Albizia coriaria leaves from three agroecological zones of Uganda
    T Omara
    Moi University 2021

  • East African quintessential plants claimed to be used as blood purifiers, cleansers, detoxifiers and tonics: an appraisal of ethnobotanical reports and correlation with
    T Omara
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre 45, 171 2021

  • Anaerobic Digestion of Cotton Yarn Wastes for Biogas Production: Feasibility of Using Sawdust to Control Digester Temperature at Room Temperature
    M Twizerimana, MM M’Arimi, EO Nganyi, T Omara, E Olomo, ...
    Open Access Library Journal 8, e7654 2021

  • Albizia coriaria Welw ex Oliver: a review of its ethnobotany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei
    Advances in Traditional Medicine, 1-16 2021

  • Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review
    SB Obakiro, AK Kiprop, I Kowino, E Kigondu, MPO Odero, T Omara, ...
    Reimagining the Natural Products Industry in Africa (RNPIA)-2021 Conference 2021

  • Aflatoxin content and health risks associated with consumption of some herbal products sold in Kampala, Uganda
    P Onen, J Watmon, T Omara, D Ocira
    French-Ukrainian Journal of Chemistry 9 (1), 1-8 2021

  • Intraspecific Variation of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Different Solvent Extracts of Albizia coriaria Leaves from Some Agro-Ecological Zones of
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2021, 2335454 2021

MOST CITED SCHOLAR PUBLICATIONS

  • Exponential Disruptive Technologies and the Required Skills of Industry 4.0
    O Bongomin, G Gilibrays Ocen, E Oyondi Nganyi, A Musinguzi, T Omara
    Journal of Engineering 2020, 4280156 2020
    Citations: 94

  • Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, RC Ramkat, J Cherutoi, S Kagoya, DM Nyangena, ...
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 3529081 2020
    Citations: 57

  • Antivenin Plants Used for Treatment of Snakebites in Uganda: Ethnobotanical Reports and Pharmacological Evidences
    T Omara, S Kagoya, A Openy, T Omute, S Ssebulime, KM Kiplagat, ...
    Tropical Medicine and Health 48, 6 2020
    Citations: 38

  • Antimalarial Plants Used across Kenyan Communities
    T Omara
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 4538602 2020
    Citations: 30

  • Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review
    SB Obakiro, AK Kiprop, I Kowino, E Kigondu, MP Odero, T Omara, ...
    Tropical Medicine and Health 48, 68 2020
    Citations: 28

  • Aflatoxins in Uganda: an encyclopedic review of the etiology, epidemiology, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, reduction and control
    T Omara, W Nassazi, T Omute, A Awath, F Laker, R Kalukusu, B Musau, ...
    International Journal of Microbiology 2020, 4723612 2020
    Citations: 27

  • Mercuric pollution of surface water, superficial sediments, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica Linnaeus 1758 [Cichlidae]) and yams (Dioscorea alata) in auriferous areas of
    T Omara, S Karungi, R Kalukusu, BV Nakabuye, S Kagoya, B Musau
    PeerJ 7, e7919 2019
    Citations: 25

  • Plants Used in Antivenom Therapy in Rural Kenya: Ethnobotany and Future Perspectives
    T Omara
    Journal of Toxicology 2020, 1828521 2020
    Citations: 13

  • Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of sisal/cattail polyester commingled composites
    SM Mbeche, T Omara
    PeerJ Materials Science 2, e5 2020
    Citations: 13

  • Spectroscopic analysis of selected priority trace metals in the extant East African gilled lungfish (Protopterus amphibius) in Lira municipal lagoon and its edibility health risk
    T Omara, R Ogwang, S Ndyamuhaki, S Kagoya, E Kigenyi, B Musau, ...
    Sci J Anal Chem 6 (5), 38-45 2018
    Citations: 13

  • Physicochemical quality of water and health risks associated with consumption of African lung fish (Protopterus annectens) from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers, Rwanda
    T Omara, P Nteziyaremye, S Akaganyira, DW Opio, LN Karanja, ...
    BMC Research Notes 13, 66 2020
    Citations: 11

  • Bioaccumulation of priority trace metals in edible muscles of West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens Owen, 1839) from Nyabarongo River, Rwanda
    P Nteziyaremye, T Omara
    Cogent Environmental Science 6 (1), 1779557 2020
    Citations: 10

  • Intraspecific Variation of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Different Solvent Extracts of Albizia coriaria Leaves from Some Agro-Ecological Zones of
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, VJ Kosgei
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2021, 2335454 2021
    Citations: 9

  • Characterization and Prognostication of Wastes Generated by Industries in Kampala Industrial and Business Park—Namanve
    T Omara, N Othieno, J Obonge, S Ssebulime, M Kansiime
    Open Access Library Journal 6 (4), 1-15 2019
    Citations: 9

  • Bioinsecticidal activity of eucalyptol and 1R-alpha-pinene rich acetonic oils of Eucalyptus saligna on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    T Omara, FK Kateeba, B Musau, E Kigenyi, E Adupa, S Kagoya
    Journal of Health and Environmental Research 4 (4), 153-160 2018
    Citations: 9

  • The Scourge of Aflatoxins in Kenya: A 60-Year Review (1960-2020)
    T Omara, AK Kiprop, P Wangila, AP Wacoo, S Kagoya, P Nteziyaremye, ...
    Journal of Food Quality 2021, 8899839 2021
    Citations: 8

  • Effects of industrial effluents on the quality of water in Namanve stream, Kampala Industrial and Business Park, Uganda
    C Angiro, PPO Abila, T Omara
    BMC Research Notes 13, 220 2020
    Citations: 8

  • Potential of Sorghum bicolor L.(Moench) and the Effectiveness of Some Organic Amendments in Remediation of Petroleum Oil-Vitiated Soils of an Automobile Repair Workshop in
    T Omara, E Adupa, F Laker, R Kalukusu, T Owori
    Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research 3 (1), 1-10 2019
    Citations: 8

  • Effects of continuous deep-fat frying on the physicochemical properties of assorted brands of edible cooking oils sold in Greater Metropolitan Kampala
    T Omara, E Kigenyi, F Laker, M Adokorach, G Otim, R Kalukusu, B Musau, ...
    Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research 3 (2), 1-13 2019
    Citations: 7

  • Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Springs in Kyambogo University Propinquity
    T Omara, W Nassazi, M Adokorach, S Kagoya
    Open Access Library Journal 6 (1), e5100 2019
    Citations: 7