Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza

Biology , Department of Hormones
National Organization for Drug control and Researc


Dr. Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, earned his PhD from Cairo University in Animal Physiology, is currently working as professor of Physiology in the National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR) Egypt. He is established scientist in the areas of liver toxicity, reproductive toxicity and liver cancer. For his highly cited publications he has ranked as the top scientists in United Arab Emirates institutions according to GSC public profiles 2017 and among the top 2% of researchers in the world by Stanford University in 2020. He has published more than 45 papers in different fields of pharmacology in many prestigious journal such as Hepatology, Scientific Report, Toxicology Letters, Toxicology, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Andrologia, Life Sciences and Molecules. His current Scopus H-index is 24 and his total citations are 2520. He is serving as a reviewer in Elsevier, Taylor, Springer and Wiley journals. He has been serving as an editorial board member of more than ten internation


Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt 2004
Ph.D., Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science

Cairo University,Cairo, Egypt 1995
M.Sc., Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science

Ain –Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 1987
Institut of Environmental Studies and Research
Diploma, In Enviromental Biological Sciences

Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt 1983
B.Sc., Zoology Department, Faculty of Science


My experience has involved drug discovery, mechanism-of-action studies, biomarker development, cancer pharmacology in xenograft and chemical tumor models, pharmacology of stress response signaling .This has required a broad understanding of cancer biology and pharmacology


Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Copper Nanoparticles from Salvadora persica Fruit Extracts and Their Biological Properties

Introduction: Metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant has emerged as an eco-friendly, clean, and viable strategy alternative to chemical and physical approaches. Methods: The fruit extract of Salvadora persica (SP) was utilized as a reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of gold (AuNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles. Results: UV–Vis spectra of the AuNPs and CuNPs showed peaks at the wavelengths of 530 nm and 440 nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nanoparticles exhibited a mainly spherical form, with a distribution range of 100 to 113 nm in diameter for AuNPs and of 130 to 135 nm in diameter for CuNPs. While energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was able to confirm the existence of AuNPs and CuNPs. The alcoholic extract of the fruit SP was analyzed by GC-MS in order to identify whether or not it contained any active phytochemicals. Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence capping functional biomolecules of SP on the surface of nan

Applications Invited
International Journal of Nanomedicine 2022, 17:6095-10.2147/ijn.s385543

Scopus Publications

Scopus Publications

  • Hibiscus-cisplatin combination treatment decreases liver toxicity in rats while increasing toxicity in lung cancer cells via oxidative stress- apoptosis pathway
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Gehan Hussein Heeba, Soha Osama Hassanin, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Amany Abdelrehim Bekhit, and Amr Amin

    Elsevier BV

  • Combining Crocin and Sorafenib Improves Their Tumor-Inhibiting Effects in a Rat Model of Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Cirrhotic-Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Basma Awad, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Amna Al-Maktoum, Suhail Al-Salam, and Amr Amin

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, with continuously increasing cases and fatalities. Diagnosis often occurs in the advanced stages, confining patients to systemic therapies such as sorafenib. Sorafenib (SB), a multi-kinase inhibitor, has not yet demonstrated sufficient efficacy against advanced HCC. There is a strong argument in favor of studying its use in combination with other medications to optimize the therapeutic results. According to our earlier work, crocin (CR), a key bioactive component of saffron, hinders HCC development and liver cancer stemness. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic use of CR or its combination with SB in a cirrhotic rat model of HCC and evaluated how effectively SB and CR inhibited tumor growth in this model. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was administered intraperitoneally to rats once a week for 15 weeks, leading to cirrhosis, and then 19 weeks later, leading to multifocal HCC. After 16 weeks of cancer induction, CR (200 mg/kg daily) and SB (10 mg/kg daily) were given orally to rats for three weeks, either separately or in combination. Consistently, the combination treatment considerably decreased the incidence of dyschromatic nodules, nodule multiplicity, and dysplastic nodules when compared to the HCC group of single therapies. Combined therapy also caused the highest degree of apoptosis, along with decreased proliferating and β-catenin levels in the tumor tissues. Additionally, when rats received combined therapy with CR, it showed anti-inflammatory characteristics where nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were considerably and additively lowered. As a result, CR potentiates the suppressive effects of SB on tumor growth and provides the opportunity to strengthen the therapeutic effects of SB in the treatment of HCC.

  • How can local medical communities reduce climate change
    Mohamed El-Kassas, Taymour Mostafa, Gamal Esmat, Samia A. Shouman, Naglaa Kholoussi, Adel M. Ashour, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Ahmed El-Sakka, Amr Radwan, Neveen A. Soliman,et al.

    Elsevier BV

  • Salvadora persica attenuates DMBA-induced mammary cancer through downregulation oxidative stress, estrogen receptor expression and proliferation and augmenting apoptosis
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Mohammad Ahmad Khasawneh, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Soha Osama Hassanin, Sammar Fathy Elhabal, and Nael M. Fawzi

    Elsevier BV

  • Safranal Prevents Liver Cancer Through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Alleviating Inflammation
    Youssef Abdalla, Ali Abdalla, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, and Amr Amin

    Frontiers Media SA
    Despite all efforts, an effective and safe treatment for liver cancer remains elusive. Natural products and their derived biomolecules are potential resources to mine for novel anti-cancer drugs. Chemopreventive effects of safranal, a major bioactive ingredient of the golden spice “saffron”, were evaluated in this study against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)–induced liver cancer in rats. Safranal’s mechanisms of action were also investigated in the human liver cancer line “HepG2”. When administered to DEN-treated rats, safranal significantly inhibited proliferation (Ki-67) and also induced apoptosis (TUNEL and M30 CytoDeath). It also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties where inflammatory markers such as NF-kB, COX2, iNOS, TNF-alpha, and its receptor were significantly inhibited. Safranal’s in vivo effects were further supported in HepG2 cells where apoptosis was induced and inflammation was downregulated. In summary, safranal is reported here as a potent chemopreventive agent against hepatocellular carcinoma that may soon be an important ingredient of a broad-spectrum cancer therapy.

  • Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Copper Nanoparticles from Salvadora persica Fruit Extracts and Their Biological Properties
    Sammar Fathy ELhabal, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Soha Hassanin, Ahmed A El-Rashedy, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, and Mohammad Ahmad Khasawneh

    Informa UK Limited
    Introduction Metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant has emerged as an eco-friendly, clean, and viable strategy alternative to chemical and physical approaches. Methods The fruit extract of Salvadora persica (SP) was utilized as a reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of gold (AuNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles. Results UV–Vis spectra of the AuNPs and CuNPs showed peaks at the wavelengths of 530 nm and 440 nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nanoparticles exhibited a mainly spherical form, with a distribution range of 100 to 113 nm in diameter for AuNPs and of 130 to 135 nm in diameter for CuNPs. While energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was able to confirm the existence of AuNPs and CuNPs. The alcoholic extract of the fruit SP was analyzed by GC-MS in order to identify whether or not it contained any active phytochemicals. Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence capping functional biomolecules of SP on the surface of nanoparticles that acts as stabilizers. Analysis of the zeta potential revealed that NPs with high degree of stability, as demonstrated by a strong negative potential value in the range of 25.2 to 28.7 mV. Results showed that both green AuNPs and CuNPs have potential antimicrobial activity against human pathogens such gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria, with CuNPs having antimicrobial activity higher than AuNPs. In addition, AuNPs and CuNPs have promising antioxidant and anticancer properties when applied to MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Studies of molecular docking of SP bioactive compounds were conducted against methenyl tetrahydrofolate synthetase. Among all of them, Beta – Sitosterol was the most prominent. Conclusion These AuNPs and CuNPs are particularly appealing in a variety of applications in the pharmaceutical and medicinal industries due to their economical and environmentally friendly production.

  • Standardized extract of ginger ameliorates liver cancer by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis through inhibition oxidative stress/ inflammation pathway
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Gehan Hussein Heeba, Salsabil Hamza, Ali Abdalla, and Amr Amin

    Elsevier BV
    Ginger has been proposed as quite a promising candidate for cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the chemo-preventive effects of ginger. Furthermore, this study investigated the possible mechanisms of a standardized extract drawn from the rhizomes of ginger against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer in Wistar rats. The chemo-preventive effects of ginger at doses of 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg per day were determined using a liver cancer model which was induced by DEN (Ali et al., 2008) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) in rats. Ginger attenuated carcinogenic changes after 22 weeks of cancer induction by decreasing the quantity and occurrences of hepatic dyschromatic nodules and positive focal areas as well as decreasing the amount of placental glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the livers of DEN/2-AAF-treated rats. Moreover, in rats, ginger counteracts DEN-influenced oxidative stress and decreases myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl concentrations in the liver. This was determined by observing the restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GST and glutathione. Immunohistochemical bleaching in rat livers showed that ginger prevented the increase in cell-positive numbers for Ki-67, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor kappa B p65. Ginger also inhibited the number of positive cells in DEN/2-AAF-treated rats for TUNEL, M30 and caspase-3 liver tissues. This research shows that ginger has an important chemo-preventative impact on liver cancer by inhibiting the growth of cells and inducing apoptosis. By reducing oxidative and inflammatory damage, ginger protects rat liver against cancer.

  • Hawthorn herbal preparation from crataegus oxyacantha attenuates in vivo carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis via modulating oxidative stress and inflammation
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Fawzy Mohamed Lashin, Mona Gamel, Soha Osama Hassanin, Youssef Abdalla, and Amr Amin

    Hawthorn (HAW) is a herbal preparation extracted from Crataegus oxyacantha. HAW has cardioprotective, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hypotensive effects. HAW’s effect on hepatic fibrosis remains, however, unknown. This study evaluated the impact of HAW on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and elucidated its mechanisms. HAW reduced liver index and the serum liver enzyme markers and reduced liver damage, and fibrosis as confirmed by histopathological scoring of hematoxylin-eosin staining. Collagen deposition was reduced in HAW group compared to CCl4 group as confirmed by Masson staining, hydroxyproline content, and both mRNA and protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1 and 3. HAW also down regulated the gene expressions of inflammatory markers including interleukin-IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β 1, nuclear factor kappa-B, and cyclooxygenase-2 and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity. The effects of HAW was also associated with decreased levels of hepatic oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and P.Carbonyl) and with increased activity of superoxide dismutase. Those effects are possibly mediated by blocking the pro-oxidant machinery and down regulating the inflammatory and profibrotic responses. Finally, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin, vitexin quercetin, and iso quercetin were identified as the major species of polyphenols of the HAW herbal preparation used here. Therefore, HAW’s potent protecting effects against liver fibrosis predicts a significant beneficial application.

  • Pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside: a lignan from prunes (Prunus domestica) attenuates oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia and hepatic toxicity in vitro and in vivo
    Fadia S. Youssef, Mohamed L. Ashour, Hesham A. El‐Beshbishy, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Abdel Nasser B. Singab, and Michael Wink

    Oxford University Press (OUP)
    This study aimed to explore the pharmacological properties of pinoresinol‐4‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (PG), isolated from prunes.

  • Aescin and diosmin each alone or in low dose- combination ameliorate liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats
    Sara Mahmmoud EL-Dakhly, Abeer Abdallah Ali Salama, Soha Osama Mahmoud Hassanin, Noha Nazeeh Yassen, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, and Amr Amin

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Objective This study evaluated hepatoprotective effect of aescin (AES) and diosmin (DIO), individually or in low-dose combination in chemically induced liver injury in rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups; Group 1, control, Group 2, injected with a single dose of a mixture of corn oil and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) to induce hepatic toxicity. Before CCl 4 injection, Groups 3–6 were treated daily for 14 days with silymarin (SIL) (200 mg/kg), aescin (AES; 3.6 & 1.75 mg/kg), Diosmin (DIO; 100 & 50 mg/kg). Serum samples were analyzed for different liver function, oxidative stress and antioxidant markers. Moreover, inflammation and tissue damage were confirmed by histological staining of liver tissue sections. Results Results indicated that CCl 4 elevated serum levels of all assessed liver function markers and decreased levels of key antioxidants. Administration of AES and/or DIO significantly reversed all those CCl 4 -induced effects. Histopathological study showed disruption of the hepatic architecture, necrosis and inflammatory cells and depositions of glycogen and protein in the tissues of CCl 4 -treated group. Pretreatment with DIO and/or AES significantly improved histopathological structure of liver tissue. In conclusion, low-dose combination of AES and DIO exhibited significant and preferential hepatoprotective activity compared to individual treatment with AES or DIO.

  • Mechanistic insights into the augmented effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and thiazolidinediones in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Ebtehal Mohammad Fikry, Wedad Abdallah, and Amr Amin

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    This study was designed to assess whether the protective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against diabetes could be enhanced by pioglitazone (PIO), a PPARγ agonist. Combined MSCs and PIO treatments markedly improved fasting blood glucose, body weight, lipid profile levels, insulin level, insulin resistance, β cell function. Those protective effects also attenuated both pancreatic lesions and fibrosis in diabetic rats and decreased the depletion of pancreatic mediators of glycemic and lipid metabolism including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PGC-1α, GLP-1 and IRS-2. Cardiac biogenesis of diabetic groups was also improved with MSCs and/or PIO treatments as reflected by the enhanced up-regulation of the expressions of cardiac IRS1, Glucose transporter 4, PGC-1, PPARα and CPT-1 genes and the down-regulated expression of lipogenic gene SREBP. The combination of MSCs and PIO also potentiated the decrease of abnormal myocardial pathological lesions in diabetic rats. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of MSCs on diabetic cardiac fibrosis and on the up regulations of TGF-β, collagen I and III gene expressions were partial but additive when combined with PIO. Therefore, combined therapy with PIO and BMCs transplantation could further potentiate the protective benefit of MSCs against diabetes and cardiac damage compared to MSCs monotherapy.

  • Molecular characterization of the grape seeds extract's effect against chemically induced liver cancer: In vivo and in vitro analyses
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Gehan Hussein Heeba, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Chandraprabha Murali, Raafat El-Awady, and Amr Amin

    Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer property of grape seed extract (GSE) during early stages of developing liver cancer using a two-stage carcinogenic model combining diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-Acetyl Aminofluorene (2-AAF). Administration of GSE at doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day started at the beginning of promotion periods and continued for 14 weeks. GSE dramatically inhibited pre-neoplastic foci formation as well as significantly decreased the number and the area of placental glutathione-S-transferase in livers of DEN-2AAF-treated rats by approximately 4 & 10 fold deductions, respectively. GSE’s effects were associated with induced apoptosis, reduced cell proliferation, decreased oxidative stress and down regulation of histone deacetylase activity and inflammation makers, such as cyclooxygenase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-kappa B-p65 and p- phosphorylated tumor necrosis factor receptor expressions in liver. GSE treatment also decreased the viability of HepG2 cells and induced early and late apoptosis through activating caspase-3 and Bax. Furthermore, GSE induced G2/M and G1/S cell cycle arrest. The present study provides evidence that the GSE’s anticancer effect is mediated through the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, modulating oxidative damage and suppressing inflammatory response.

  • Induction of heme oxygenase-1 with hemin alleviates cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats and enhances its cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell line
    Gehan Hussein Heeba, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, and Soha Osama Hassanin

    Elsevier BV
    Cisplatin-induced testicular damage is a major obstacle in the application of cisplatin as chemotherapeutic agent. However, it remains as one of the most widely employed anticancer agents in treating various solid tumors including prostate cancer. Since heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, we investigated the effects of up-regulation of HO-1 by hemin and its inhibition by zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) on cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of hemin and ZnPP, with and without cisplatin, was evaluated on human prostate cancer cell line, PC3. Results of the animal study showed that hemin reversed cisplatin-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and ameliorated cisplatin-induced alterations in testicular and epididymal weights, and restored normal testicular architecture. Moreover, hemin increased the expression and activity of HO-1 protein and prevented cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This effect was evidenced by amelioration of testicular oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione contents, and catalase activity) and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase expressions). In contrast, administration of ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor) did not show significant improvement against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. Finally, in vitro analyses showed that, hemin augmented the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin, while ZnPP inhibited its apoptotic effect in PC3 cells. In conclusion, the induction of HO-1 represents a potential therapeutic approach to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cisplatin without repressing, but rather augmenting, its cytotoxic effects on PC3 cells.

  • Melissa officinalis protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and potentiates its anticancer activity on MCF-7 cells
    Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Mahguob Mohamed Ahmed, Hanan Mohamed Elwey, and Amr Amin

    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Cardiotoxicity is a limiting factor of doxorubicin (DOX)-based anticancer therapy. Due to its beneficial effects, we investigated whether standardized extract of Melissa officinalis (MO) can attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can potentiate the efficacy of DOX against human breast cancer cells. MO was administered orally to male albino rats once daily for 10 consecutive days at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt. DOX (15 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) was administered on the 8th day. MO protected against DOX-induced leakage of cardiac enzymes and histopathological changes. MO ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by decreasing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and total oxidant capacity depletion and by increasing antioxidant capacity. Additionally, MO pretreatment inhibited inflammatory responses to DOX by decreasing the expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 and the activity of myeloperoxidase. MO ameliorated DOX-induced apoptotic tissue damage in heart of rats. In vitro study showed that MO augmented the anticancer efficacy of DOX in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and potentiated oxidative damage and apoptosis. Thus, combination of DOX and MO may prove future cancer treatment protocols safer and more efficient.

  • Fenugreek seed extract attenuates cisplatin-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats
    A. A. Hamza, H. M. Elwy, and A. M. Badawi

    Cisplatin (CIS) provides oxidative stress and inflammations in testicular tissues. Fenugreek seed extract (FSE) is a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant and anti‐inflammation properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of FSE against CIS‐induced testicular damage in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given vehicle, single dose of CIS alone (10 mg kg−1), single dose of FSE alone or single dose of CIS followed by FSE (50, 100 or 200 mg kg−1) every day for 5 days. On day 6, oxidative stress and apoptotic testicular toxicity were evaluated. FSE attenuated both germ cell degenerations and apoptosis in seminiferous tubules in CIS‐treated rats. Furthermore, FSE counteracted CIS‐induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by the restoration of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduction in the myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels in testes. CIS increased expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor‐kappa B in testicular tissues. Importantly, treatment with FSE at all doses effectively alleviated all of these inflammatory parameters in testes. Based on these results, we concluded that FSE reduces CIS‐induced reproductive toxicity in rats by the suppression of testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammations.

  • Saffron- based crocin prevents early lesions of liver cancer: In vivo, in vitro and Network analyses
    Amr Amin, Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Sayel Daoud, Kamal Khazanehdari, Ala'a Al Hrout, Badriya Baig, Amphun Chaiboonchoe, Thomas E. Adrian, Nazar Zaki, and Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani

    Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
    BACKGROUND The angiogenesis inhibitor, sorafenib, remains the only available therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Only recently patents of VEGF receptors-3 inhibitors are developed. Thus, a novel approach against HCC is essential for a better therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to examine the chemopreventive action of saffron's main biomolecule, crocin, against chemically-induced liver cancer in rats, and to explore the mechanisms by which crocin employs its anti-tumor effects. METHOD We investigated the anti-cancer effect of crocin on an experimental carcinogenesis model of liver cancer by studying the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, pro-apoptotic activities of crocin in vivo. In addition, we provided a network analysis of differentially expressed genes in tissues of animals pre-treated with crocin in comparison to induced-HCC animals' tissues. To further support our results, in vitro analysis was carried out. We assessed the effects of crocin on HepG2 cells viability by treating them with various concentrations of crocin; in addition, effects of crocin on cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells were investigated. RESULTS Findings reported herein demonstrated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of crocin when administrated in induced- HCC model. Crocin exhibited anti-inflammatory properties where NF-κB, among other inflammatory markers, was inhibited. In vitro analysis confirmed crocin's effect in HepG2 by arresting the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases, inducing apoptosis and down regulating inflammation. Network analysis identified NF-κB as a potential regulatory hub, and therefore, a candidate therapeutic drug target. CONCLUSION Taken together, our findings introduce crocin as a candidate chemopreventive agent against HCC.

  • Rosuvastatin ameliorates diabetes-induced reproductive damage via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic pathways in male rats
    Gehan Hussein Heeba and Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza

    Elsevier BV
    AIM Besides a cholesterol-lowering effect, rosuvastatin (RUV) possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the possible protective effects of RUV in diabetes-induced reproductive damage in rats. MAIN METHODS Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting a single dose of streptozotocin (65mg/kg, i.p.). RUV in low and high doses (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) were administrated to diabetic rats for 8weeks. Reproductive damage was evaluated by estimation of testes and epididymis relative weights and caudal sperm count and motility in the control, untreated and RUV-treated diabetic rats. In addition, testicular malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and nitric oxide levels, as well as, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities were estimated. Finally, expressions of inflammatory [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)] and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers besides histological examination of testicular tissues were performed. KEY FINDINGS Results showed that RUV improved sperm count and motility with decrease in testicular nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels, as well as, myeloperoxidase activity and increase in reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in diabetic rats. Further, RUV reduced testicular inflammation and cell death by decreasing the expressions of iNOS, NF-κB and caspase-3. SIGNIFICANCE Treatment with RUV protects against diabetes-induced testicular damage, in a dose dependent manner, through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

  • Selenium ameliorates isotretinoin-induced liver injury and dyslipidemia via antioxidant effect in rats
    Nashwa Mostafa Saied and Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza

    Informa UK Limited
    Abstract Isotretinoin (Iso) is a widely used retinoid for the treatment of dermatologic conditions. Although it has broad side effects, there is no well-designed study about preventive effects against its hepatic toxicity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of selenium (Se) against Iso-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as control. The second, third and fourth groups received Se, Iso and Se & Iso, respectively, for 28 days. Se was administered daily orally at a dose of 50 µg / 100 g body weight. Iso was given daily orally at a dose of 0.75 mg/ 100 g /day in olive oil. Iso caused significant increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipids content. Animals also showed significant rise in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance and nitric oxide content with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver tissue after Iso exposure. Se administration produced a significant protection against the hepatotoxic effects of Iso and markedly alleviated alterations in these parameters. The results obtained herein clearly indicate that Iso causes induction of oxidative stress and the co-administration of Iso and Se provides protection against Iso-induced liver injury.

  • Introducing cichorium pumilum as a potential therapeutical agent against drug-induced benign breast tumor in rats
    M-Ali H. Al-Akhras, Khaled Aljarrah, Hasan Al-Khateeb, Adnan Jaradat, Abdelkarim Al-omari, Amjad Al-Nasser, Majed M. Masadeh, Amr Amin, Alaaeldin Hamza, Karima Mohammed,et al.

    Informa UK Limited
    Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) is could be a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizing drug concentrates in benign tumor cells and activated by quanta at certain wavelength. Such activated extracts could lead to cell death and tumor ablation. Previous studies have shown that Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) contains photosensitive compounds such as cichoriin, anthocyanins, lactucin, and Lactucopicrin. In the present study, the protective effect of sun light-activated Cichorium against the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced benign breast tumors to female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Chicory's extract has significantly increase P.carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases the hepatic levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in benign breast tumors-induced group compared to control. It also significantly decrease the number of estrogen receptors ER-positive cells in tumor masses. These results suggest that chicory extracts could be used as herbal photosensitizing agent in treating benign breast tumor in rats.

  • Antioxidant, lipoxygenase and histone deacetylase inhibitory activities of acridocarbus orientalis from Al Ain and Oman
    Taoufik Ksiksi and Alaaeldin Hamza

    Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) is a traditional medicinal plant used for treatment of inflammatory diseases that may have potential in cancer treatment. In the present study, the aqueous ethanolic crude extract of Acridocarpus aerial parts obtained from Al Ain and Oman were evaluated for their antioxidant capability, polyphenolic content, anti-lipoxygenase and anti-histone deacetylase (HDAC) properties. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Acridocarpus-Al Ain exhibited the highest polyphenolic content (184.24 mg gallic acid/g) and the best antioxidant activity (1.1, 1.04, 1.14 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g in the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively). Additionally, the same extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties via lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50.58 µg/mL). Acridocarpus-Al Ain also showed the strongest histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitory activity (IC50 = 93.28 µg/mL). The results reported here suggest that there was a significant influence of location and the plant may be considered a good source of compounds with antioxidant, anti-LOX and HDAC properties for therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications.

  • A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba neutralizes cisplatin-mediated reproductive toxicity in rats
    Amr Amin, Christeena Abraham, Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Zeinab A. Abdalla, Shaikha B. Al-Shamsi, Saina S. Harethi, and Sayel Daoud

    Hindawi Limited
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects ofGinkgo biloba(GB) against testicular damage and oxidative stress as well as caudal sperm indices in a cisplatin- (CIS-) induced rodent model. Adult male Wistar rats were given vehicle, single i.p. dose of CIS alone (10 mg/kg), GB alone (200 mg g/kg every day for five days), or single dose of CIS followed by GB (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg every day for five days). On day 6, after the first drug treatment oxidative and apoptotic testicular toxicity was evaluated. CIS-treated rats displayed decreased weights of testes and epididymis as well as caudal sperm count and motility. This reproductive toxicity was accompanied with increased germ-cell degeneration in seminiferous tubules and increased germ-cell apoptosis, increased testicular MDA levels and MPO activity, and decreased SOD and CAT activities in testes. Intensive expressions of COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB p65 in testicular tissues were detected in CIS-treated group. Oral GB administrations at all doses to CIS-treated rats effectively alleviated all of the CIS-induced toxicity in reproductive system. The present results provide further insights into the mechanisms of protection against CIS-induced reproductive toxicity and confirm the essential antioxidant potential of a GB extract.

  • Antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase inhibitory effect and polyphenolic compounds from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br
    Mohammad Ahmad Khasawneh, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Nael Mohamed Fawzi, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Abdul Raheem Chevidenka, and Ahmed H. Hassan

    Science Alert

  • The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifidipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats
    Khadiga Mohammed Gaafa, Mohammed M. Badawy, and Alaaeldin A. Hamza

    Informa UK Limited
    The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

  • Saffron: A potential candidate for a novel anticancer drug against hepatocellular carcinoma
    Amr Amin, Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Khuloud Bajbouj, S. Salman Ashraf, and Sayel Daoud

    Saffron has been proposed as a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the chemopreventive action and the possible mechanisms of saffron against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‐induced liver cancer in rats. Administration of saffron at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day was started 2 weeks prior to the DEN injection and was continued for 22 weeks. Saffron significantly reduced the DEN‐induced increase in the number and the incidence of hepatic dyschromatic nodules. Saffron also decreased the number and the area of placental glutathione S‐transferase–positive foci in livers of DEN‐treated rats. Furthermore, saffron counteracted DEN‐induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione‐S‐transferase levels and diminishing of myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation in liver. The results of immunohistochemical staining of rat liver showed that saffron inhibited the DEN‐mediated elevations in numbers of cells positive for Ki‐67, cyclooxygenase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor‐kappa B p‐65, and phosphorylated tumor necrosis factor receptor. Saffron also blocked the depletion in the number of cells positive for TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick‐end labeling) and M30 CytoDeath in liver tissues of DEN‐treated rats. In vitro experiments carried out using HepG2 cells also confirmed these findings and showed inhibition of nuclear factor‐kappa B activation, increased cleavage of caspase‐3, as well as DNA damage and cell cycle arrest upon saffron treatment. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that saffron exerts a significant chemopreventive effect against liver cancer through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. This report also shows some evidence that saffron protects rat liver from cancer via modulating oxidative damage and suppressing inflammatory response. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;)



    Elhabal SF, Elwy HM, Hassanin S, El-Rashedy AA, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, and Khasawneh MA. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Copper Nanoparticles from Salvadora persica Fruit Extracts and Their Biological Properties, International Journal of Nanomedicine 2022, 17:6095-10.2147/