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Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing
Florida Atlantic University
BS Biology: Lebanon Valley College
BSN Thomas Jefferson University
MScN University of Toronto
PhD University of South Carolina
M. Lindell Joseph, Heather Bair, Michele Williams, Diane L. Huber, Sue Moorhead, Kirsten Hanrahan, Howard Butcher, and Nai-Ching Chi
Nursing Outlook, ISSN: 00296554, Pages: 596-604, Published: September - October 2019 Elsevier BV
Joel Olayiwola Faronbi, Howard K. Butcher, and Adenike Ayobola Olaogun
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 39-46, Published: 1 January 2019 SLACK, Inc.
Family members play key roles in the care of older adults with chronic illness. However, little is known about the negative consequences of caregiving in Sub-Sahara Africa. The current study examined the influence of caregivers' burden and coping ability on the health-related quality of life of caregivers of older adults with chronic illness. An exploratory sequential mixed methods study was conducted among 16 family members. Findings showed that caregivers experienced severe burden, coped moderately with the burden, and had poor quality of life. Furthermore, directed content analysis of the in-depth interviews uncovered six major themes: (a) Being Pulled in Opposite Directions, (b) Experiencing Poor Health, (c) Receiving Support From Family and Friends, (d) Turning to God for Help, (e) Seeking Relief for Aching Bodies, and (f) Seeking Remedies for Sleeplessness. The current findings may have implications for designing programs that aim to improve the well-being of caregivers. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 45(1), 39-46.].
Howard K. Butcher and Todd N. Ingram
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 20-32, Published: 1 November 2018 SLACK, Inc.
Suicide is a tragic, traumatic loss, and one of the most emotionally devastating events families, friends, and communities experience. Suicide claims more than 800,000 lives every year, and some of the highest rates of suicide in the United States and globally are among older adults. The purpose of this evidence-based guideline is to help health care providers recognize those at risk for suicide and recommend appropriate and effective secondary suicide prevention interventions. The information in this guideline is intended for health care providers who work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, out-patient clinics, mental health clinics, home health care, and other long-term care facilities. Assessment and preventive treatment strategies were derived by exhaustive literature review and synthesis of the current evidence on secondary prevention of late-life suicide across practice settings. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(11), 20-32.].
Noreen Frisch, Howard K. Butcher, Diana Campbell, and Dickon Weir-Hughes
Journal of Holistic Nursing, ISSN: 08980101, eISSN: 15525724, Pages: 210-217, Published: 1 September 2018 SAGE Publications
As part of a study of a larger study of self-identified holistic nurses, researchers asked nurses to describe practice situations where energy-based modalities (EBMs) were used. Four hundred and twenty-four nurses responded by writing free-text responses on an online survey tool. The participants were highly educated and very experienced with 42% holding graduate degrees and 77% having over 21 years of practice. Conventional content analysis revealed four themes: EMBs are 1) caring modalities used to treat a wide range of identified nursing concerns; 2) implemented across the life span and to facilitate life transitions; 3) support care for the treatment of specific medical conditions; and 4) Use of EBMs transcend labels of ‘conditions’ and are used within a holistic framework. The fourth theme reveals a shared vision of nursing work such that the modality becomes secondary and the need to address the ‘whole’ at an energetic level emerges as the primary focus of holistic nursing.
Jeanette M. Daly and Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 21-30, Published: 1 July 2018 SLACK, Inc.
Elder abuse occurs in all practice settings and presents in various forms. The purpose of the current evidence-based practice guideline is to facilitate health care professionals' assessment of older adults in domestic and institutional settings who are at risk for elder abuse, and to recommend interventions to reduce the incidence of mistreatment. Limited research has been conducted on interventions to prevent or reduce elder abuse. Research is available on the prevalence of elder abuse and indicators of individuals who may be more susceptible to harm. The current article summarizes prevalence and risk factors for elder abuse, instruments available to assess individuals at risk for or victims of abuse, and potential interventions to prevent or reduce elder abuse. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(7), 21-30.].
Patricia Finch Guthrie, Shelley Rayborn, and Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 14-24, Published: 1 February 2018 SLACK, Inc.
Delirium is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults often superimposed on dementia. Older patients with delirium are more likely than other populations to develop hospital-acquired infections, pressure ulcers, and immobility and nutritional issues, as well as to have increased health care costs, longer hospital stays, and long-term care following discharge. Interventions that prevent or mitigate the effects of delirium while promoting recovery are essential for caring for hospitalized older patients. This article is a summary of an evidence-based guideline that includes a framework for addressing delirium that focuses on predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium. In addition, the guideline includes evidence-based assessment and intervention principles, along with a review of reliable and valid assessment instruments. The guideline also identifies measurable outcomes for managing delirium and a quality improvement approach for improving outcomes. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(2), 14-24.].
Deborah Shields, Ann Fuller, Marci Resnicoff, Howard K. Butcher, and Noreen Frisch
Journal of Holistic Nursing, ISSN: 08980101, eISSN: 15525724, Pages: 352-368, Published: 1 December 2017 SAGE Publications
The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer’s method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.
Cheryl Kruschke and Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 15-21, Published: 1 November 2017 SLACK, Inc.
Falls are a major cause of injury and death annually for millions of individuals 65 and older. Older adults are at risk for falls for a variety of reasons regardless of where they live. Falls are defined as any sudden drop from one surface to a lower surface. The purpose of this fall prevention evidence-based practice guideline is to describe strategies that can identify individuals at risk for falls. A 10-step protocol including screening for falls, comprehensive fall assessment, gait and balance screening when necessary, and an individualized fall intervention program addressing specific fall risks is presented. Reassessing fall risk and fall prevention programs will ensure a proactive approach to reducing falls in the aging population. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(11), 15-21.].
Renan Alves Silva, Geórgia Alcântara Alencar Melo, Joselany Áfio Caetano, Marcos Venícios Oliveira Lopes, Howard Karl Butcher, and Viviane Martins da Silva
Revista gaucha de enfermagem, ISSN: 01026933, Pages: e65768, Published: 6 July 2017 FapUNIFESP (SciELO)
RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a acurácia do diagnóstico “Disposição para melhora da Esperança” em pacientes renais crônicos. Método Estudo transversal com 62 pacientes em clínica de hemodiálise entre agosto a novembro de 2015. Utilizou-se a Escala de Esperança de Herth para a construção das definições das características definidoras da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Analisaram-se medidas de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo, razão de verossimilhança e odds ratio das características definidoras do diagnóstico. Resultados 82,22% apresentaram o diagnóstico. Verificou-se que as características definidoras “Expressa desejo de intensificar a coerência entre expectativas e desejos” e “Expressa o desejo de reforçar a resolução de problemas para alcançar as metas” aumentou em onze e cinco vezes, respectivamente, a chance de possuírem o diagnóstico. Conclusão “Expressa desejo de intensificar a coerência entre expectativas e desejos” e “Expressa o desejo de reforçar a resolução de problemas para alcançar as metas” apresentaram boas medidas de acurácia.
Paul Arnstein, Keela A. Herr, and Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 20-31, Published: 1 July 2017 SLACK, Inc.
More individuals develop and endure constant or recurring pain in older adulthood. Although 40% of these individuals receive no treatment, many evidence-based treatments are available. Accurate assessment of pain, its impact on functioning, and preventing treatment-related harms lay the foundation of safe, effective pain control. Analgesic agents are often necessary, but require a delicate balance to prevent under-treatment, the unnecessary abandonment of therapy, or exposure to potentially serious adverse effects. Nondrug therapies must be better integrated into the treatment plan to ensure overall safety. Evidence-based approaches help older adults thrive and survive longer despite living with persistent pain. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(7), 20-31.].
Renan Silva, , Álissan Lima, Natália Barreto, Anna Viana, Howard Butcher, Viviane Martins, , , , , and
Investigacion y Educacion en Enfermeria, ISSN: 01205307, eISSN: 22160280, Pages: 306-319, Published: 2017 Universidad de Antioquia
OBJECTIVES To identify and analyze the concept of the powerlessness in individuals with stroke, according to the NANDA-I Taxonomy. METHODS Concept analysis from online access of four databases using the descriptors: impotence; helplessness, learned; Stroke, depression in languages: Portuguese, English and Spanish. RESULTS The critical attributes of the feeling of powerlessness are: fragility, helplessness, lack of control, and power to achieve the proposed results for recovery and adaptation. Eleven new antecedents were found. It is recommended to reformulate three antecedents present in the taxonomy. Fourteen consequent were found. It is suggested to amend three consequential from the review. CONCLUSIONS With the analysis, a more complete concept of the powerlessness was elaborated allowing clarifying the critical attributes that, in turn, will help the rehabilitating nurse to recognize the signs and symptoms and to strengthen mechanisms of tolerance and resistance to stress.
Howard K. Butcher, Jean K. Gordon, Ji Woon Ko, Yelena Perkhounkova, Jun Young Cho, Andrew Rinner, and Susan Lutgendorf
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias, ISSN: 15333175, eISSN: 19382731, Pages: 631-642, Published: 1 December 2016 SAGE Publications
This study tested the effect of written emotional expression on the ability to find meaning in caregiving and the effects of finding meaning on emotional state and psychological burden in 91 dementia family caregivers. In a pretest–posttest design, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a comparison group. Experimental caregivers (n = 57) wrote about their deepest thoughts and feelings about caring for a family member with dementia, whereas those in the comparison group (n = 34) wrote about nonemotional topics. Results showed enhanced meaning-making abilities in experimental participants relative to comparison participants, particularly for those who used more positive emotion words. Improved meaning-making ability was in turn associated with psychological benefits at posttest, but experimental participants did not show significantly more benefit than comparison participants. We explore the mediating roles of the meaning-making process as well as some of the background characteristics of the individual caregivers and their caregiving environments.
Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 25-32, Published: 2016 SLACK, Inc.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to facilitate clinical decision making and the achievement of optimal patient outcomes and quality of life. Since 1994, The University of Iowa College of Nursing and its partner, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Nursing Services and Patient Care, has been at the forefront of making gerontological nursing EBP a reality. Every 4 months since 2007, the Journal of Gerontological Nursing (JGN) has published an EBP article focusing on a specific situation or problem associated with the care of older adults based on an EBP guideline developed and published by the University of Iowa College of Nursing. The current article provides background for the development of EBP in general and the specific development, processes, and components of the EBP guidelines published in this section of JGN. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42 (7), 25-32.].
Mary J. Dyck, Theresa Schwindenhammer, and Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 21-31, Published: 2014 SLACK, Inc.
Heide Christine Bursch and Howard Karl Butcher
Research in Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 19404921, Pages: 207-215, Published: 2012 SLACK, Inc.
Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease (AD) challenges family caregivers with existential questions about what is the right thing to do for themselves and their care recipient. This study extracted themes spontaneously occurring in self-disclosure through expressive writing and sheds phenomenological insight into the deepest feelings revealed by caregivers of loved ones with AD. The personal journals of 24 caregivers were analyzed in the framework of Ricoeur's philosophy of ethics based on the concept of personal identity. Caregivers reflected on themes in friendship, self-esteem, authenticity, and capacity to act with the ethical intention to stay present while the care recipient is disappearing. Engaging the text within Ricoeur's ethically sensitive philosophy and methodology illuminated the benefit of writing interventions that allow caregivers to speak about conflicted states regarding their own humanity in the caregiver experience.
Lisa Skemp and Howard Karl Butcher
Journal of gerontological nursing, ISSN: 00989134, Pages: 17-21, Published: January 2012 SLACK, Inc.
Catherine E. Burnette, Sara Sanders, Howard K. Butcher, and Emily Matt Salois
Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, ISSN: 15313204, eISSN: 15313212, Pages: 275-296, Published: October 2011 Informa UK Limited
The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to illuminate the lived experiences of both indigenous and non-indigenous researchers conducting culturally competent research with indigenous people. Interviews from 13 social science research experts revealed 6 underlying themes about their research with indigenous people, including respect and commitment, mutual trust, affirmation, harmony among multiple worldviews, responsibility, and spiritual/personal growth.
Howard Karl Butcher and Meghan L. McGonigal-Kenney
Research in Gerontological Nursing, ISSN: 19404921, Pages: 148-161, Published: July 2010 SLACK, Inc.
This phenomenological investigation sought to enhance understanding of the experience of dispiritedness by providing a rich and vivid description of the essential structure of the experience in later life. van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological method was used to analyze the transcribed texts of 11 individuals who identified themselves as being in "later life" (mean age = 73, age range = 52 to 93) and who participated in phenomenological interviews focusing on describing the experience of dispiritedness. Statements describing the experience of dispiritedness were sorted into 21 thematic categories that were synthesized into 7 essential themes that described the structure of the lived experience of dispiritedness in later life as Arising From Life's Trying Transitions, Feeling Disengaged From Meaning, Experiencing a Restricting Loss of Vigor and Animation, Feeling Forlorn Bewilderment, Moving Between Engagement and Disengagement, Remaining Faithful to Enduring Connections, and Engaging in Day-to-Day Living.
Sara Sanders, Howard K. Butcher, Peggy Swails, and James Power
Death Studies, ISSN: 07481187, eISSN: 10917683, Pages: 521-556, Published: July 2009 Informa UK Limited
The purpose of this study was to investigate how caregivers respond to the end stages of dementia with the assistance from hospice. Data were collected from 27 family caregivers over the course of 10 months, with each caregiver being interviewed up to 4 times during the time that the patient received hospice care. Chart review data were also collected. Four distinct caregiver portraits emerged: (a) disengaged, (b) questioning, (c) all-consumed, and (d) reconciled. Caregivers in each portrait differed in how they responded to the impending death of the care recipient, the disease progression, and hospice care. Recognizing the differences in the ways that caregivers respond to the final stages of the disease will assist hospice and other providers in best meeting the needs of the caregivers.
Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, eISSN: 10899758, Published: June 2008
Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Holistic Nursing, ISSN: 08980101, Pages: 169-172, Published: September 2008 SAGE Publications
Howard K. Butcher
Journal of Holistic Nursing, ISSN: 08980101, Pages: 93-95, Published: June 2008 SAGE Publications
Howard Karl Butcher
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, ISSN: 10783903, eISSN: 15325725, Pages: 116-120, Published: April 2006 SAGE Publications
Reenvisioning gerontological mental health nursing begins with reinterpreting the meaning of aging and radically transforming the curriculum of the subspecialty. The commentary suggests 11 specific recommendations that expand on Morris and Mentes’s article as a way of reenvisioning and rerooting gerontological mental health nursing. Among the recommendations are renaming the subspecialty “gerontological mental health nursing” as a means to more appropriately reflect the multidisciplinary focus and mental health perspective, placing an equal emphasis on positive aspects of healthy aging, developing a standardized model curriculum, increasing the number of programs offering specialization in gerontological mental health nursing, and reinvigorating continuing education about gerontological mental health care for currently practicing nurses.
Annual Review of Nursing Education, ISSN: 1542412X, Pages: 375-391, Published: 2005
Howard Karl Butcher
Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN: 08943184, Pages: 293-297, Published: October 2005 SAGE Publications
Howard K. Butcher and Meghan McGonigal-Kenney
American Journal of Nursing, ISSN: 0002936X, Volume: 105, Pages: 52-62, Published: December 2005 Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
The misconception that aging and depression are inevitably entwined is not only common but also dangerous. It can lead to a variety of adverse events, which might have been avoided had the depression been recognized and treated. However, recognizing depression in older adults can be difficult as it may present differently in this population than it does in younger adults. Furthermore, while treatment options are similar, adjustments may need to be made to deal with the physiological changes inherent to age. The authors address the recognition and treatment of depression in older adults. They also propose a diagnosis of dispiritedness, "a feeling of being in low spirits" that they have found to be common among older adults and suggest appropriate nursing interventions.
Myonghwa Park, Howard Karl Butcher, and Meridean L. Maas
Research in Nursing and Health, ISSN: 01606891, Pages: 345-356, Published: October 2004 Wiley
The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of 19 Korean family caregivers' experiences in making the decision to place a family member with dementia in a Korean long-term care facility. A total of 656 themes (descriptive statements) were identified and synthesized into 17 topics using Luborsky's method for thematic analysis. The topics were synthesized into four patterns: (a) feeling exhausted; (b) deep sorrow; (c) fractured relationships; and (d) apprehension. The findings enhance the capacity of health care professionals and the public to understand more fully, how caregiving experiences differ by cultural context. The findings contribute to understanding family caregiving experiences in a country in transition from a traditional society based on Confucianism to a Westernized society.
Ann Wilde Kelly, Kathleen Coen Buckwalter, Geri Hall, Amy L. Weaver, and Howard K. Butcher
Home Health Care Management and Practice, ISSN: 10848223, Pages: 99-109, Published: 2002 SAGE Publications
This study identified the salient issues of caregiving for family members of persons with dementia using computer-assisted content analysis followed by factor analysis. Differences in responses between caregivers in two treatment groups were also noted. Caregivers (N = 226) were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months. They consistently identified the following themes of caregiving in order of significance: (a) making meaning of the experience; (b) defining the caregiver role; (c) identifying specific caregiving strategies; (d) dealing with change, unpredictability, and vulnerability; (e) evaluating past and future decisions and quality of care; and (f) finding help and support. This representation of the caregiving experience is useful to home care nurses by providing a framework to address issues most important to caregivers and upon which therapeutic interventions can be developed.
Howard Karl Butcher, Patricia A. Holkup, Myonghwa Park, and Meridean Maas
Research in Nursing and Health, ISSN: 01606891, Pages: 470-480, Published: December 2001 Wiley
The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the experience of making the decision to place a family member in a special care unit among a diverse sample of family caregivers. To achieve purposive maximum variation of the sample, the sample of 30 family caregivers was chosen from an original study of 256 family caregivers. The sample was randomly stratified according to ethnicity, gender, and relationship to the care receiver. Three independent researchers used Luborsky's method of thematic analysis to analyze the interviews. After mutual consensus, 1565 themes (descriptive statements) were identified and synthesized into 21 topics. The topics were then synthesized into four patterns describing the decision-making experience: moving toward the unavoidable decision, struggling with the decision, seeking reassurance, and remaining connected.
H.K. Butcher, P.A. Holkup, and K.C. Buckwalter
Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN: 01939459, Pages: 33-55, Published: February 2001 SAGE Publications
Howard K. Butcher
Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN: 08943184, Pages: 111-118, Published: 1999 SAGE Publications
Philosophy is a basis for all science. Yet nursing science is in search of its philosophical foundation (Riegel et al., 1995). Disciplines comprise various schools of thought. Further more, most major schools of thought have philosophical theo ries addressing each of the major branches of philosophy. For example, the philosophy of Aristotle and Kant each included theories on metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, and aesthetics. The science of unitary human beings is one of nursing’s major schools of thought. Rogers created an entirely new system of thought through the synthesis and resynthesis of knowledge from a wide range of sources, including philosophy, basic sciences, and metaphysics. Explication of the philosophy of the science of unitary human beings is needed for its continued evolution (Phillips, 1997a). Rogers (1992) asserted that all science is open-ended and continuously evolving and “thus, the development of the science of unitary human beings is a never-ending process” (p. 28). Although a number of Rogerian scholars (Butcher, 1994; Carboni, 1991; Hanchett, 1992; Reeder, 1993; Sarter, 1988a, 1988b) have ex amined the science of unitary human beings’ metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, the ethics embedded in Rogerian nursing science remain unexamined. The purpose of this col umn is to illuminate Rogers’s most cherished ethical values through a process of ethical inquiry as a means to advance and deepen the understanding of the philosophy of Rogerian sci ence. Explicating a system of Rogerian ethics strengthens the substance of Rogerian science.
NLN publications, Issue: 15-2610, Pages: 397-429, discussion 430, Published: April 1994
NLN publications, Issue: 15-2548, Pages: 183-198, Published: August 1993
Howard K. Butcher and Cheryl Forchuk
Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN: 08943184, eISSN: 15527409, Pages: 118-123, Published: September 1992 SAGE Publications
The purpose of this article is to explore the overview effect, an experience evoked by space travel that has the capacity to transform all patterns of human existence and evolution toward greater potentials in human diversity and creativity. As nurses migrate with humanity into the solar system and beyond, they will experience the overview effect. The core components of the effect include changed perceptions of space, time, sound, and weight which have the potential to transform the evolution of nursing science. Nursing paradigms will encompass a view of humanity as integral with an infinite evolutionary universe. After generations of living in space in a diversity of new environments, the physical body will undergo radical changes, and the meaning of health will be transformed. The article concludes with a discussion on the parallels between Rogers' science of unitary human beings and the overview effect.
Mary-Lou Martin, Cheryl Forchuk, Marc Santopinto, and Howard K. Butcher
Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN: 08943184, eISSN: 15527409, Pages: 80-85, Published: April 1992 SAGE Publications
This article demonstrates three major nursing theories in practice. The uniqueness of each theory is clarified through the presentation of nursing formulations and practice implications. The discussion provides a meta perspective of how practice based in nursing theory is different from traditional practice and how nursing theory can guide practice.
Howard K. Butcher and Nora I. Parker
Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN: 08943184, eISSN: 15527409, Pages: 103-110, Published: August 1988 SAGE Publications
A pre-test/post-test control group design with 60 participants was used to examine the subjective feelings of timelessness, motion, boundary lessness, transcendence, and increased imagination experienced during pleasant guided imagery within Martha Rogers' science of unitary human beings. Two hypotheses were derived from Rogers' principle of reso nancy, which describes "the continuous change from lower to higher wave frequency patterns in the human and environmental fields." Pleas ant guided imagery was postulated to pattern the human energy field from a lower toward a higher wave frequency pattern. The hypotheses tested in this study were (a) participants experiencing an 11-minute pleasant guided imagery tape will have significantly lower time metaphor test scores than participants experiencing an 11-minute educational tape and, (b) participants experiencing pleasant guided imagery will have significantly higher human field motion tool scores than participants experiencing the educational tape. Lower time metaphor test scores and higher human field motion tool scores reflect a higher wave frequency pattern of the human energy field. A significant treatment by trials interaction effect (F = 4.358; df = 1/118; p < 0.05) provided support for the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis was not supported. On the basis of a factor analysis, the validity of the human field motion tool is questioned. The findings suggest that Rogers' principle of resonancy may provide an explanation of the subjective feelings experienced during pleasant guided imagery.