Saed A Musmar

Industrial Engineering Department
The university of Jordan


Scopus Publications

Scopus Publications

  • Examine Fuzzy System to Present an Equilibrium Model for the Internal Pressure Losses of Alpha Type Stirling Engine: Comparison with ANN Model
    Sa’ed A. Musmar, Iskander Tlili, Ala’Aldeen Al-Halhouli, and Frank Mucciardi

    World Scientific Pub Co Pte Ltd
    Global warming associated with the greenhouse effect urge finding alternative energy strategies concerned with sustainable energy resources that are environmentally friendly and provide energy saving. Waste heat recovery engines are attracting devices that convert usually wasted energy to valuable mechanical or electrical energy. The current research aims to develop a mathematical model to investigate the effects of regenerator physical dimensions on the alpha Stirling engine performance indicators. A mathematical model integrating an internal pressure drop has been proposed to act as a thermodynamic optimization tool for the Stirling engine. The main conclusion was that both geometrical factors and working fluid initial charge (gas mass) craft the performance parameters of alpha type Stirling engine that operates with air as working material. After that, Artificial neural networks of Levenberg Marquardt and Orthogonal Distance Regression models, and Fuzzy systems trained for Mass Charge from M = 0.002 to 0.004 Kg are compared to find the least uncertainty. Results revealed that the Fuzzy system and Orthogonal Distance Regression model could predict more effectively than the Levenberg Marquardt model.

  • Quantitative assessment of potassium hydroxide concentration in oxyhydrogen cell for optimal gasoline fuel engine performance and emissions
    Sa’ed A. Musmar, Ammar A. Al-Rousan, Musa AlAjlouni, and Khalid Alzoubi

    ASME International
    Abstract Oxyhydrogen gas (Brown gas (HHO)) can be an innovative venue for cleaner energy in the auto industry. The effect of potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentration in an electrolyte solution of HHO fuel cell on GK200 Honda single-cylinder engine performance parameters and emissions has been investigated. A 1 L/min blend of HHO is fed to the engine as a secondary fuel and a constant electrical load, and variable engine speed (1300–2300) tests were carried out to quantify the foremost concentration of KOH in the fuel cell electrolyte that has a constructive impact on both engine performance parameters and emissions. Several concentrations of KOH were considered (1 g/l, 1.5 g/l, 2 g/l, 5 g/l, and 6.5 g/l). Results reveal that all KOH concentrations considered have a positive impact on engine performance parameters and the best concentration range for KOH in distilled water is within the range 1–2 g/l. The average percentage enhancement in engine brake power was 22.3% and 20.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption whereas the average reduction in carbon oxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were almost 80% and 50% reduction in NOx and HC emissions. Most of the literature concerned with HHO as a fuel blend set 5 g/l KOH concentration for fuel cell electrolyte whereas the results of this research reveal that lower concentrations within the range of 1–2 g/l reduce the energy consumed by the fuel cell in addition to higher impact on the engine performance parameters and enhance the overall system efficiency.

  • Analytical Hierarchy Process-Based Decision Making for Evaluating the Use of Pyrolytic Carbon Black as an Alternative Source of Heating in Refugee Camps in Jordan
    Belal M.Y. Gharaibeh, Sa'ed Awni Musmar, Ehab Al-Zamer, and Surname Samer Al-Zamer

    Nearly 4 billion tons of waste tires are generated throughout the world. The accumulated tires are a global concern being undegradable therefore, hazardous to the environment. A recent breakthrough in recycling technology based on pyrolysis process decomposes tire’s rubber into high grade energy source which is pyrolytic oil and carbon black as a byproduct that commonly utilized as a filler in polymer industry and rarely as a solid fuel source. This work introduces the potential of utilizing carbon black from pyrolysis (CBP) as an alternative solution for heating and targeting refugee camps in Jordan.Analysis of different alternatives of heating sources currently used in refugees’ camps in Jordan is performed in comparison to energy alternative sources. A multi criteria decision making methodology has been used to choose the best alternative between four heating energy sources: LPG, Solar, CBP, and diesel. Four main criteria and two sub-criteria were studied by employing the Analytical Hierarchy process AHP methodology tool to prioritize each main and sub-criteria with respect to the alternatives to highlight the significant features for the decision makers when choosing heating sources in refugee camps in Jordan.The alternatives of this research were analyzed and prioritized, the results demonstrated that LPG is the most suitable source of heating to be used in refugee camps with a rank of 0.3921; followed by the new alternative CBP ranking 0.3049, solar and fossil fuel diesel ranked third and fourth with values 0.1946 and 0.1084, respectively. Results showed that the economic aspects were the most significant main criteria with respect to the target, while future availability and pollution were the most significant sub-criteria.

  • Triple Diffusive Unsteady Flow of Eyring–Powell Nanofluid Over a Periodically Accelerated Surface With Variable Thermal Features
    Sami Ullah Khan, Hanumesh Vaidya, Wathek Chammam, Sa'ed A. Musmar, K. V. Prasad, and Iskander Tlili

    Frontiers Media SA
    This research communicates the triple diffusion perspective of Eyring–Powell nano-materials configured by a periodically moving configuration. The thermal consequences of variable natures are utilized as a novelty. Combined magnetic and porous medium effects are also involved, which result in a magneto-porosity parameter. The thermophoretic and Brownian motion aspects are reported by using Buongiorno's nanofluid theory. The formulated flow equations in non-dimensional forms are tackled with the implementation of a homotopy analysis algorithm. A detailed physical investigation against derived parameters is presented graphically. Due to periodically accelerated surface, the oscillations in velocity and wall shear stress have been examined.

  • Bioconvection in cross nano-materials with magnetic dipole impacted by activation energy, thermal radiation, and second order slip
    Zahra Abdelmalek, Kamel Al-Khaled, Hassan Waqas, A. Aldabesh, Sami Ullah Khan, Sa’ed A. Musmar, and Iskander Tlili

    Ferro liquids derive their magneto–viscous behavior from the suspended magnetic nanomaterial that enables tunable changes in temperature, as well as nano-structured fluid characteristics. A theoretical model that depicts the bioconvection flow of cross nanofluid with a magnetic dipole subjected to a cylindrical surface was developed and numerically solved. The model encountered nonlinear thermal radiation, activation energy, and second order slip. The flow equations were reduced and are presented in dimensionless forms, and they were solved numerically using the shooting technique, which is a built-in feature of MatLab. The model encountered symmetrical constraints for predicting velocity, temperature, concentration, and gyrotactic microorganism distribution and profiles. Moreover, the numerical values were computed for local Nusselt number, local Sherwood number, and motile density number against each physical parameter.

  • Aspects of chemical entropy generation in flow of casson nanofluid between radiative stretching disks
    Nargis Khan, Iram Riaz, Muhammad Sadiq Hashmi, Saed A. Musmar, Sami Ullah Khan, Zahra Abdelmalek, and Iskander Tlili

    The appropriate utilization of entropy generation may provoke dipping losses in the available energy of nanofluid flow. The effects of chemical entropy generation in axisymmetric flow of Casson nanofluid between radiative stretching disks in the presence of thermal radiation, chemical reaction, and heat absorption/generation features have been mathematically modeled and simulated via interaction of slip boundary conditions. Shooting method has been employed to numerically solve dimensionless form of the governing equations, including expressions referring to entropy generation. The impacts of the physical parameters on fluid velocity components, temperature and concentration profiles, and entropy generation number are presented. Simulation results revealed that axial component of velocity decreases with variation of Casson fluid parameter. A declining variation in Bejan number was noticed with increment of Casson fluid constant. Moreover, a progressive variation in Bejan number resulted due to the impact of Prandtl number and stretching ratio constant.

  • Biodiesel production from Melia azedarach and Ricinus communis oil by transesterification process
    Muhammad Awais, Sa’ed A Musmar, Faryal Kabir, Iram Batool, Muhammad Asif Rasheed, Farrukh Jamil, Sami Ullah Khan, and Iskander Tlili

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel usually produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. This study investigates the extraction of oil and its conversion into biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification. Firstly, the effect of various solvents (methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, di-ethyl ether) on extraction of oil from non-edible crops, such as R. communis and M. azedarach, were examined. It was observed that a higher concentration of oil was obtained from R. communis (43.6%) as compared to M. azedarach (35.6%) by using methanol and n-hexane, respectively. The extracted oils were subjected to NaOH (1%) catalyzed transesterification by analyzing the effect of oil/methanol molar ratio (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) and varying temperature (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C) for 2.5 h of reaction time. M. azedarach yielded 88% and R. communis yielded 93% biodiesel in 1:6 and 1:8 molar concentrations at ambient temperature whereas, 60 °C was selected as an optimum temperature, giving 90% (M. azedarach) and 94% (R. communis) biodiesel. The extracted oil and biodiesel were characterized for various parameters and most of the properties fulfilled the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard biodiesel. The further characterization of fatty acids was done by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) and oleic acid was found to be dominant in M. azedarach (61.5%) and R. communis contained ricinoleic acid (75.53%). Furthermore, the functional groups were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results suggested that both of the oils are easily available and can be used for commercial biodiesel production at a cost-effective scale.

  • Effect of cylinder-liner rotation on wear rate: An experimental study
    Sa'ed A. Musmar, Ammar Alrousan, and Iskander Tlili

    Elsevier BV
    In rotating cylinder-piston system, the largest losses source is frictional losses, accounting for 50% of the total frictional losses, thus it is important to optimize. Effect of incremental rotation of a cylinder liner on its wear rate was investigated. The engine speed, load and the cylinder rotating angle were the main parameter. The results showed that the wear rate may be reduced to the half simply by rotating cylinder liner every six hours’ time interval of working. The test was carried out in pairs using a piston cylinder with movable liner and compared to a standard cylinder liner (fixed liner). Angles of 60o, 120o, 180o, 240o, and 300o were used for incremental movement. The same operating conditions for two cylinders were maintained for the purpose of comparison. Beneficial effects of reducing the wear rate for all components of the piston-cylinder arrangement associated with incremental rotational movement of a cylinder linear were noticed. A decrease in wear rate was obvious in the cylinder liner in rotation angles of 120o and 240o and it is almost one-fourth of the wear that occurs in the stationary cylinder liner.

  • Effect of anodes-cathodes inter-distances of HHO fuel cell on gasoline engine performance operating by a blend of HHO
    Ammar A. Al-Rousan and Sa'ed A. Musmar

    Elsevier BV
    Abstract Control emission pollution associated with oil combustion is a major concern of researchers worldwide. A blend of HHO has been introduced to the combustion elements to reduce emission and drive the combustion reaction toward stoichiometric condition. HHO fuel production unit based on an electrolysis process has been designed and built with an ability to alter Anode-Cathode plate's inter-distances and integrated to Honda G 200 (197 cc single cylinder engine). The gap between the plates was adjusted to 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm. Tests reveal that mixing HHO, air, and gasoline cause an enhancement in engine performance and emissions. The emission tests have been done with varying the engine speed and preserve the electrolyte concentration and temperature. The results show that enhancement in combustion characteristics is strongly affected by the gap between cell plates. The maximum produced power and minimum fuel consumption were associated with the case of 10 mm cathode-anode plates distance where hydrocarbons (HCs) and carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced to about 40% at different operating speeds. Whereas, 5 mm gap case has the highest impact on emission reduction.

  • Traffic emission control through gasoline automotive engine mixture enhancement
    Sa'ed A. Musmar, Sharaf Alkheder, Ammar A. Al-Rousan, Mousa Al-Ajlouni, Yaser Jaradat, Madhar Taamneh, and Walid Khresat

    Transportation networks today are witnessing a dramatic increase in traffic volume that emits large amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere. Many environment-friendly technologies are introduced recently to reduce vehicles' emissions. It is possible to obtain a homogeneous fuel–air mixture in the internal combustion engines under ideal conditions, but it is hard to have control on this mixture in the abnormal conditions. Based on the engine's working conditions, the mixture, sometimes, becomes rich and at other times it might become chemically correct. In this work, a new spiral shape device is used to enhance the mixture homogeneity and to maintain a correct fuel–air mixture. The spiral device works on enhancing the mixture through dividing the fuel particles into smaller ones. The device splits the particles to the largest number possible so it can mix better with the air and evaporate quickly in the combustion chamber. Results showed that use of the new device reduced the percentages of carbon monoxide (CO), the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the hydrocarbon. The mixing process is also improved as it is clear from the air–fuel ratio. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2017

  • The effect of rolling direction on the weld structure and mechanical properties of DP 1000 steel
    Walid Khraisat, Wisam Abu Jadayil, Yazan Al-Zain, Sa’ed Musmar, and Chaoqun Wu

    Informa UK Limited
    Abstract Since gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is a common procedure to join different sheets in the industry, the welding direction dependence on the rolling direction was investigated for a welded DP1000, a cold-rolled dual phase steel. Microstructural investigations and mechanical tests were conducted on two weldments; one being welded parallel to the rolling direction and the second transverse to the rolling direction and the results were compared. It was found that there is a higher degree of softening of the heat-affected zone in the sample welded parallel to the rolling direction. Although this softening did not significantly decrease the tensile strength or the hardness of this sample when compared to the one welded transverse to the rolling direction, the elongation was twice as high in the former sample. That is related to the slower heat dissipation in the sample welded parallel to the rolling direction as confirmed by its microstructural products.

  • Green transportation: Increasing fuel consumption efficiency through HHO gas injection in diesel vehicles
    Ammar A. Al Rousan, Sharaf Alkheder, N.A. Sa', ed A. Musmar, and Mohammed Awwad Al Dabbas

    Inderscience Publishers

  • Performance Analysis of a New Water-based Microcooling System
    Sa'ed A. Musmar, A. T. Al-Halhouli, Iskander Tlili, and S. Büttgenbach

    Informa UK Limited
    In the electronic industry, dissipating the heat load becomes a critical factor for highly developed designs. These require higher power transfer in a more compact size. In the current study, a new microcooling system was developed and tested. It utilizes the enhancement in heat transfer characteristics associated with implementing a vortex promoter in the evaporator segment of a water-based heat pipe. The test evaporator was a cavity of 4-mm diameter and 23-mm length in an electrically heated aluminum block. A helical coil (of various diameters, namely 500, 300, and 250 μm) was introduced to the evaporator segment to act as a vortex promoter. Configurations of a new microcooling system based on a modified heat pipe technology were built and tested. The presented system proves to work efficiently in situations where a closed-loop thermosyphon encounters film boiling limitation. The most efficient configuration has a flow modifier diameter about one-tenth of the evaporator chamber gap, while the diameter of the return line was three-quarters of the evaporator gap. This configuration shows a stable operation characteristic and possesses high thermal efficiency. The maximum heat flux obtained by such a configuration was 305 W/cm2 when it runs at 103°C saturated temperature and 0.01°C/W thermal resistance. A uniform temperature distribution along the system was noticed.

  • Urban traffic pollution reduction for sedan cars using petrol engines by hydro-oxide gas inclusion
    Ammar A. Al-Rousan, Sharaf Alkheder, and Sa’ed A. Musmar

    Informa UK Limited
    Petrol cars, in particular nonhybrid cars, contribute significantly to the pollution problem as compared with other types of cars. The originality of this article falls in the direction of using hydro-oxy gas to reduce pollution from petrol car engines. Experiments were performed in city areas at low real speeds, with constant engine speeds in the average of 2500 rpm and at variable velocity ratios (first speed was 10–20 km/hr, second speed was 20–35 km/hr, and third speed was 35–50 km/hr). Results indicated that through using hydro-oxy gas, a noticeable reduction in pollution was recorded. Oxygen (O2) percentage has increased by about 2.5%, and nitric oxide (NO) level has been reduced by about 500 ppm. Carbon monoxide (CO) has decreased by about 2.2%, and also CO2 has decreased by 2.1%. It’s worth mentioning that for hybrid system in cars at speeds between 10 and 50 km/hr, the emission percentage change is zero. However, hybrid cars are less abundant than petrol cars. Implications: The originality of this paper falls in the direction of using hydro-oxy gas to reduce pollution from petrol car engines. Experiments were performed in city areas at low real speeds, with constant engine speeds in the average of 2500 rpm and at variable velocity ratios (first speed was 10–20 km/hr, second speed was 20–35 km/hr, and third speed was 35–50 km/h).

  • Design optimization of thermal heat engines

  • Thermodynamic evaluation of a second order simulation for Yoke Ross Stirling engine
    Iskander Tlili and Sa’ed A. Musmar

    Elsevier BV
    Abstract Environmental impact and depletion of mineral resources such as coal, oil and gas are prompting a reexamination of an alternative to these resources. A safe and sustainable energy pathway which is crucial to sustainable development in addition to greenhouse gas emitters and its relationship with climate change are leading factors to look for adequate strategies concerning both energy saving and environmental protection. Solar heat engines are attracting much interest nowadays and, as a consequence, different Stirling engine coupled to solar collector have been investigated since it meets the demands of the efficient use of energy and assuring environmental security. In recent years several prototypes and experimental facilities of solar Stirling engine have been developed. The future commercial interest of this alternative for electric power generation relies on a reduction of investment costs and on an increase of performance. The Stirling heat engine was first patented in 1816 by Robert Stirling. Since then, several Stirling engines based on his invention have been built in many forms and sizes. The engine works with a closed cycle and uses several gases as working fluid. Several prototypes have already been studied and produced but the alpha Stirling engine using the Ross Yoke linkage was not well studied although this kind of engine has the advantage of minimizing lateral forces acting on the pistons and leading to a more efficient and compact design compared to beta or gamma Stirling configuration, The objective of this work was the study of the effect of the geometrical and physical parameters on Ross Yoke Stirling engine performance in order to determine the significant thermodynamic parameters having an impact on engine performance. We proposed thermodynamic optimization of a Ross Yoke Stirling engine on the basis of a numerical model integrating the internal and external irreversibility. As a result, this analysis indicated that the performance of a Ross Yoke Stirling cycle engine with air as working gas depends critically on the geometrical parameters and heat input.

  • Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines
    Sa’ed A. Musmar and Ammar A. Al-Rousan

    Elsevier BV
    Reducing the emission pollution associated with oil combustion is gaining an increasing interest worldwide. Recently, Brown’s gas (HHO gas) has been introduced as an alternative clean source of energy. A system to generate HHO gas has been built and integrated with Honda G 200 (197 cc single cylinder engine). The results show that a mixture of HHO, air, and gasoline cause a reduction in the concentration of emission pollutant constituents and an enhancement in engine efficiency. The emission tests have been done with varying the engine speed. The results show that nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) have been reduced to about 50% when a mixture of HHO, air, and fuel was used. Moreover, the carbon monoxide concentration has been reduced to about 20%. Also a reduction in fuel consumption has been noticed and it ranges between 20% and 30%.


1. " Bioconvection in Cross Nano-Materials with Magnetic Dipole Impacted by Activation Energy, Thermal Radiation, and Second Order Slip", Symmetry 2020, 12, 1019; doi:10.3390/sym12061019
2. " Aspects of Chemical Entropy Generation in Flow of Casson Nanofluid between Radiative Stretching Disks, Entropy, 2020, 22, 495; doi:10.3390/e22050495
3. " Biodiesel Production from Melia azedarach and Ricinus communis Oil by Transesterification Process", Catalysts 2020, 10, 427; doi:10.3390/catal10040427
4. "Effect of cylinder-liner rotation on wear rate: An experimental study" Heliyon, Vol. 5, Issue 7, 2019, pp. e 02065
5. "Effect of anodes-cathodes inter-distances of HHO fuel cell on gasoline engine performance operating by a blend of HHO",International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 43, Issue 41, 11 October 2018, Pages 19213-19221
6. "The effect of rolling direction on the weld structure and mechanical properties of DP 1000 steel‏, 2018,Cogent Engineering 5 (1), 1-11.
7. "Green transportation: increasing fuel consumption efficiency through HHO gas injection in diesel vehicles"‏,International Journal of Global Warming,2018,14 (3), 372-384.
8. "Traffic emission control through gasoline automotive engine mixture enhancement‏",2018, Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 37 (2), 761-765.
9. "ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION EFFECT ON WORLDWIDE PASSENGERS AIRLINES NETWORKS",Journal of Nature Science and Sustainable Technology,2016, 10 (3), 269"New Water Based Micro-Cooling System”‏Experimental Heat Transfer,2016, DOI 10 (08916152.2015), 1024353‏.
10. . Urban traffic pollution reduction for sedan cars using petrol engines by hydro-oxide gas inclusion‏, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association,2015, 65 (12), 1456-1460.
11. “Design optimization of thermal heat engines”‏, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 2015, 32
12. Numerical Investigation of Working Fluid Effect on Stirling Engine Performance‏
Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering,2015, 10 (1), 31 – 36.
13. "Performance analysis of a new Waste Heat Recovery System‏",,2015,,International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering 10, 31-36‏.
14. Thermodynamic evaluation of a second order simulation for Yoke Ross Stirling engine‏, Energy conversion and management, 2013,68, 149-160.
15. “Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines”. Fuel, 90, 2011, PP. 3066-3070.
16. “A Novel In-Situ Thermal Analysis Technique for Aluminum Alloys: 356, 319, Al-xSi, Al-Si-Cu-xMg, and 6063 - Experimental Study”, American Foundry Society (AFS), Texas, Texas, May, 2007.
17. “New Thermal Analysis Probe for Aluminum Alloys”, International Arab Metallurgist Conference, Sharemelshek, Egypt, November 11, 2007.
18. “In-Situ Thermal Analysis Probe”, Light Metals, 2006, Annual Conference of Metallurgists of CIM, Montreal, Canada, 2006.
19. “Invistigation of Iron and Copper Intermetallics in 356 Aluminum Alloy and in Al-7%Si Binary Alloy by an In-Situ Thermal Analysis Probe”, 110th Metal Casting Congress, American Foundry Society (AFS), Columbus, Ohio, on April 18-21, 2006.
20. New Heat Pipe Technology for In-situ Thermal Analysis of Aluminum Alloys, Regal Student Day, Poster session, Quebec, 2004. Mémoire de la recherche, Journée des étudiants du REGAL, Les Presses de l’aluminium, Chicoutimi, 2005, p. 45.
21. In-situ Thermal Analysis Technology for Aluminum Foundry Alloys”, 43rd Annual Conference of Metallurgists of CIM, Light Metals and Metal Matrix Composites, Hamilton, 2004.
22. “Enhancing Solar Energy Collection by using curved flow technology coupled with flow in porous media: an experimental study”. Solar Energy, 75, 2003, pp. 261-268.

23. Diffusive unsteady flow of Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a periodically accelerated surface with variable thermal features, Frontiers in Physics, acceptance letter June 2020.