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DEEP LEARNING TRAINING WITH LIMITED DATA

  • Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Contact:Dr Nagender Aneja
  • Application invited for:Remote Research Collaboration


Deep learning needs lots of data for training; however, in some industrial applications, the significant amount of data may not be available, limiting the deep learning approach. Modern techniques like transfer learning and generative adversarial networks show some hope to solve this challenge. The objective of the project is to propose new techniques for deep learning training.

DEEP LEARNING SECURITY

  • Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Contact:Dr Nagender Aneja
  • Application invited for:Remote Research Collaboration


Deep-learning networks are susceptible to butterfly effect wherein small alterations in the input data can point to drastically distinctive outcomes, making the deep learning network inherently volatile. Thus, the output of deep learning network may be controlled by altering its input or by adding noise. Research has shown that it is possible to fool the deep learning network by adding an imperceptible amount of noise in the input.

GENERATIVE ADVERSARIAL NETWORKS - REVERSE IMAGE CAPTIONING - TEXT TO IMAGE AND SCALING GAN TRAINING WITH BATCH SIZE

  • Universiti Brunei Darussalam
  • Contact:Dr Nagender Aneja
  • Application invited for:Remote Research Collaboration


Generative Adversarial Networks may have potential to solve the text-to-image problem, but there are challenges in using GANs for NLP. Image classification have got benefitted with large mini-batches and one of the open question the question https://distill.pub/2019/gan-open-problems/#batchsize is if they can also help to scale GANs

Bacterial toxins


Bacterial exotoxins role in food environment

Biofilms in food environments


Biofilms role in food environments in competition

Life Cycle Assessment


Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis)[1] is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Designers use this process to help critique their products. LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision

Source Separation


Source separation may refer to: Signal separation, the analysis of mixtures of signals Blind source separation, the separation of a set of source signals from a set of mixed signals, without the aid of information (or with very little information) about the source signals or the mixing process Source separation (recycling), where each material is cleaned and sorted prior to collection Waste sorting, the process by which waste is separated into different elements Urine separation, the separate collection of human urine and feces at the point of their production, i.e. at the toilet or urinal

كتاب عن تاريخ المشرق الاسلامي

  • جامعة بغداد كلية التربية ابن رشد للعلوم الانسانية قسم التاريخ
  • Contact:Prof.Dr.Suaad Hadi Hassan AL-Taai
  • Application invited for:التاريخ السياسي والعلمي للبويهيين


يتناول تاريخ البويهيين

بحث عن تاريخ المغول

  • جامعة بغداد كلية التربية ابن رشد للعلوم الانسانية قسم التاريخ
  • Contact:Prof.Dr.Suaad Hadi Hassan AL-Taai
  • Application invited for:اثر الحضارة الإسلامية على المغول


يتناول المظاهر العمرانية للمغول

بحث عن المدن المغولية

  • جامعة بغداد كلية التربية ابن رشد للعلوم الانسانية قسم التاريخ
  • Contact:Prof.Dr.Suaad Hadi Hassan AL-Taai
  • Application invited for:التطور والازدهار العمراني للمغول


يتناول اهم المدن التي بناها المغول

بحث عن تطور اقتصاد اليابان

  • جامعة بغداد كلية التربية ابن رشد للعلوم الانسانية قسم التاريخ
  • Contact:Prof.Dr.Waleed Abood AL-Dulaimi
  • Application invited for:ضرورة دراسة اقتصاد اليابان


اهم الأسباب التي أسهمت في تطور اقتصاد اليابان

Remote Sensing in Soil Science

  • University of Baghdad
  • Contact:Amal Muhammad Saleh
  • Application invited for:process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area


Remote sensing techniques offer fast access to information about soil conditions and have been applied over a number of regions worldwide for mapping physical and chemical properties of bare ground. However, in case of surfaces covered with vegetation i

Soil Taxonomy

  • University of Baghdad
  • Contact:Amal Muhammad Saleh
  • Application invited for:Soil classification is a window into knowledge about soils at a given moment in time.


Technology has provided opportunities to make more precise measurements, causing a major shift from qualitative definitions to quantitative ones to take place

GIS in Soil Science

  • University of Baghdad
  • Contact:Amal Muhammad Saleh
  • Application invited for:Spatial variability is a term indicating changes in the value of a given property over space


The objectives of this study were to determine the degree of spatial variability of some soil physical and chemical properties,

A Secure Protocol in IP-Based Internet of Things: Using Symmetric Cryptography


The data and information security are considered a significant problem in networks especially in the Internet of Things (IoT) systems. In this paper, we design a completely implemented security system for the IoT based on existing standard internet protocols. The main protocol that has been improved in this paper is the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol. The public key cryptography (RSA) has been used as a cryptography algorithm in this proposed work. We present an implemented architecture and system based on low-power hardware scheme convenient for IoT environment.

Archaeological theory/methods and built material culture studies

  • BETTER Inc.
  • Contact:David Benjamin
  • Application invited for:collaborate, correspond, funding, networking, research position


Goal: To conbribute to the advancement and international discussion of both theory and method for enquiry into pre-historic architecture, the agency of craftspeople making cultural heritage, its relationships to landscape, and also to contribute to the discipline of material culture studies through this research and discussion.

narratives for the future/present, future archaeologies and anthropologies

  • BETTER Inc.
  • Contact:David Benjamin
  • Application invited for:collaborate, correspond + networking funding


Goal: Seeking ways, knowledge, knowledge forms and collaborative partners to formulate and demonstrate virtuous narratives, incl designs for the planet that are culturally relevant, incl especially work with craftspersons and artisans.

Sustainable Transformation

  • BETTER Inc.
  • Contact:David Benjamin
  • Application invited for:collaborate, networking, correspond, funding, research position


Goal: Transforming the modernistic architecture of the welfare society into livable and efficient neighbourghoods. Focus on a future interpretation which optimize both the expression and the comfort. Methods: Practice-Based Research, Case studies, Surveys, Integrated research

Hybrid nano materials

  • SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Contact:Dr S Kalaiselvan
  • Application invited for:Nanomaterials


Synthesis of hybrid nano materials from fossil wastes

Plastic Based Pavers Brick

  • SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Contact:Dr S Kalaiselvan
  • Application invited for:Plastic Bricks


Production and design of pavers brick from plastic waste to increase plastic waste

Biodiesel

  • SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Contact:Dr S Kalaiselvan
  • Application invited for:Biofuels


Continuous Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil using hybrid catalyst

Beam-Column Connection

  • Moslem University of Indonesia
  • Contact:Muh Syarif B
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Precast connection system in structure element must be designed in such way to result in required behaviour, such as plastic hingesmust be well-planned to be able to shed earthquake energy and to limit seismic loading that goes inside the structure. This research is experimental study that precast beam connection which is modeled using steel plate. The result of this model design use to compare the occurence of structure deformity rigidity in monolith concrete construction (BN) and precast concrete (BP1 and BP2). The testing dimension consists of column with the size 300x300 mm and height 3300mm, beam 200x300 mm and width 3300 mm, with steel plate 200x400x8 mm and 300x400x8. This study resulted in monolith testing material (BN) produces average value 47.8 % from its previous rigidity, BP1is 57.13% from its previous rigidity, and BP2 is 52.22% from its previous rigidity

social marketing, corporate social responsibility, sustainability and business ethics

  • Comeve Asociados, SA de CV
  • Contact:perezla
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


International certification of corporate social responsibility, with system B

Social Marketing to Prevent disease and strengthen health promotion programs

  • Comeve Asociados, SA de CV
  • Contact:perezla
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Quantitative research to diagnose the effectiveness of Social Marketing to Prevent disease and strengthen health promotion programs

Apply the goals and objectives of SDG 2030, for Municipalities

  • Comeve Asociados, SA de CV
  • Contact:perezla
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Qualitative and quantitative research to apply the goals and objectives of SDG 2030, for Municipalities

الانفتاح على الخبرة


يهدف الى تعرف مستوى الانفتاح على الخبرة لدى طلبة الجامعة وعلاقته بمتغير ادارة الذات

الصمود النفسي


يهدف الى تعرف مستوى الصمود النفسي

ادمان الانترنت


يهدف الى التعرف على مدى ادمان الانترنت لدى طلبة المرحلة الثانوية وعلاقته ببعض المتغيرات

EATING MATTERS: CHALLENGES OF AN INCLUSIVE, SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY FOOD FOR BETTER AGING

  • ODELA (Observatori de l'Alimentació). Food Observatory
  • Contact:Margalida Mulet Pascual
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Knowledge is at the root of change and transformation. Therefore, one of the specific goals of this project is to collect qualitative and quantitative data on the food itineraries of older people. This data will be used to explore whether they are keeping safe, healthy and culturally acceptable food practices; what their possible needs are; and what impact these needs could have on the food production and distribution chain, as well as on the social, commercial and/or catering services of the places where we carry out the fieldwork. Research questions are organized around three axes: What, How, Why.

Validation of ABCD

  • JSS College of Physiotherapy
  • Contact:Kavitha Raja
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


ABCD is an assessment battery developed for children with DCD. It has been validated in India initially. We would like to develop normative values and validate in other countries

Rock Painting of Central India

  • Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Madhya Pradesh
  • Contact:Mohanlalchadhar
  • Application invited for:India


Rock Painting of India with Special Reference to Central India

Sociedade, Desenvolvimento e Regionalidade

  • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
  • Contact:Sergio Moretti
  • Application invited for:Partner


Esse projeto objetiva desenvolver estudos que aprofundem no conhecimento sobre as relações desenvolvidas entre as organizações e a sociedade, contribuindo para a compreensão das mudanças sociais e culturais que influenciam a composição das sociedades contemporâneas. São temas de estudo ancorados nesta linha de pesquisa: estudos que abordem temas como cultura, comportamento organizacional, trabalho, diversidade, identidade e poder nos diversos formatos e suas fronteiras; as relações e comportamento de consumo; as organizações sociais; a sustentabilidade; a responsabilidade social; e ainda incluem-se aqui as pesquisas sobre perspectivas do ensino de administração para o desenvolvimento regional.

Indicadores de hospitalidade de micro e pequenas empresas de serviço no Triângulo Mineiro

  • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
  • Contact:Sergio Moretti
  • Application invited for:Partner


O objetivo deste projeto é propor um modelo de referência para a medição do desempenho das micro e pequenas empresas de serviços (MPEs) com base na prática de hospitalidade, de forma que se identifique os principais problemas limitantes à suas práticas, além de criar as bases para o estabelecimento de indicadores de benchmarking de hospitalidade que contribua para o aumento da competitividade das empresas de serviços, tanto local, regional e global. O projeto envolve pesquisas de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa, envolvendo estudos de casos. Os resultados esperados são: a criação de um modelo melhores práticas de hospitalidade, a elaboração de uma tabela de indicadores para as práticas de hospitalidade direcionada para as MPEs.

Formación inicial y permanente de profesionales de la educación

  • Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba
  • Contact:Luis Manuel Ferrás
  • Application invited for:Desarrollo de competencias


Desarrollar las competencias básicas para el desempeño de los profesionales de la educación en su formación continúa

Didáctica interdisciplinar para la formación inicial de profesionales universitarios

  • Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba
  • Contact:Luis Manuel Ferrás
  • Application invited for:Métodos Interdisciplinarios


Búsqueda de métodos didácticos que permitan desarrollar el pensamiento interdisciplinar de docentes universitarios y los profesionales que estos forman.

Blockchain and energy


Use of blockchain technology to commercialize distributed energy

Desenvolvimento de materiais e de técnicas restauradoras adesivas objetivando a melhoria no desempenho e na longevidade dos procedimentos restauradores


Os objetivos específicos deste projeto são: 1) Caracterizar um sistema adesivo experimental de dois frascos, contendo diferentes concentrações (1%, 3% e 5%) de silicato de sódio e silicato de magnésio visando avaliar propriedades de selamento, resistência mecânica, biocompatibilidade e efeitos antimicrobianos. 2) Avaliar a efetividade de técnicas de tratamento da dentina visando melhorias na adesividade e na diminuição da permeabilidade dentinária/ sensibilidade pós-operatória..

AAi2 Lab+


The AAi2Lab+ project is inspired by broad conceptions of creativity and innovation as inducing forces of social and institutional co-evolution, of exploring the potential of documentary and of artistic photography and mapping, combined with qualitative and quantitative approaches, for making imaginative questions on space appropriation, urban perception and socio-cultural diversity, as well as for addressing transversal problems within interdisciplinary debates on Architecture, City and Territory.

Urea granules coated with Ca and Mg nanoparticles as controlled release pathway for macro and micro nutrients


This project aims to achieve an intelligent release system of granular urea based fertilizer coated with CaCO3 and MgO nanoparticles. The work will seek to: a) determine the influence of the parameters used in the preparation of coated urea granules on properties fundamental to the release kinetics of macro and micronutrients; b) characterize the urea granules in relation to the properties that influence the controlled release of the fertilizer; and c) determine the efficiency of coated and uncoated granulated urea on the cultivation of eucalyptus seedlings.

Ga (III) -phthalocyanine-containing PLGA-PEG nanospheres: preparation, characterization and evaluation of photodynamic efficiency in MCF-7 tumor cells


This research project has as its general objective the preparation, characterization and evaluation of photodynamic efficiency of polymeric lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanospheres linked or not to polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) molecules, containing phthalocyanine of gallium (GaPc) as a photosensitizer in reducing the viability of MCF-7 breast tumor cells. The influence of parameters involved in the preparation of nanospheres on nanoparticulate properties will be studied by chemometric procedures. Experiments will be performed to evaluate the effect of photosensitizer encapsulation on GaPc photobleaching as well as on the side effect of photosensitivity on non-cancerous cells.

3D Bioprinting in Airway Surgery

  • Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome Italy
  • Contact:TROZZI MARILENA
  • Application invited for:Ministerial approval


Pre clinical in vivo study on animal model (ovine) to assess the biocompatibility, integration and tolerance of 3D printing in Policaprolacton graft in laryngotracheal reconstruction.

Plant virus like particles

  • Tarbiat modares univrsity
  • Contact:Razieh Yazdani
  • Application invited for:production of new carrier base plant virus like particles


Virus-like particle (VLP) technology represents a most exciting approach for the produce of efficient and immunogenic vaccine platform. In order to study the possibility of plant virus like particles, as new carrier to identify outer surfaces for epitope insertion and display foreign epitopes on the plant virus CP surface that whould not effect VLP formation, plant virus coat protein (CP) gene construct is going to investigating and engineering by using bioinformatics information and foreign epitope secondary structure will predicte by MODELLER software and will genetically inserte at the surface of plant virus CP.

Educação Sexual científica.

  • Universidade Federal de Jataí
  • Contact:CLAUDIONOR RENATO DA SILVA
  • Application invited for:Pesquisadores iniciantes na graduação e projetos de pesquisa para mestrado.


Uma abordagem em Educação Sexual voltada para a perspectiva da Epistemologia da Ciência e a Filosofia da Ciência.

Artificial Neural network


Artificial Neural network

Bio-Char application to agricultural Crops

  • Tamilnadu Agricultural University
  • Contact:DURAI SINGH RAMIAH
  • Application invited for:Students


In dryland agriculture, improving the soil moisture storage and to influence the nutrient availability specifically in vertisols to improve crop yield.

Design of RF Amplifier for 3 GHz

  • New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Contact:Gurulakshmi A B
  • Application invited for:1.Start ups 2.Students 3.Rf design Engineers


Objective of this project is to simulate the stable RF amplifier for high frequency applications using ADS. The optimized design will be fabricated and tested in Research lab for commercialization

Design of LNA for satellite cmmunication

  • New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Contact:Gurulakshmi A B
  • Application invited for:1.Start ups 2.Students 3.Rf design Engineers


Objective of this project is to simulate the Low Noise Amplifier for high frequency applications using ADS. The optimized design will be fabricated and tested in Research lab for commercialization

Estimation of the Diffusion Coefficient and Hydrodynamic Radius (Stokes Radius) for Inorganic Ions in Solution Depending on Molar Conductivity as Electro-Analytical Technique-A Review

  • Institute of technology/ Baghdad
  • Contact:Muhammed J. Kadhim
  • Application invited for:Diffusion coefficient; Hydrated radius; Molar conductance; Movement of ions


Diffusion coefficient (D) and radiuses of inorganic charge ions (R) in different environments is of importance in scientific fields, explaining certain features of ions. D values were obtained using the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation depending on limiting molar conductivity (λo) of inorganic charge ions. Inorganic ions have D values at the range of 1−3×10−9 m2.s-1, except hydroxyl and hydrogen ion (5.2×10−9 and 9.1×10−9 m2.s-1, respectively). The hydrodynamic radius R for diffusing ions was calculated using the Stokes–Einstein equation based on D values. Inorganic ions have R, values at the range of 1−3×10−10 m, except hydroxyl and hydrogen ion (R=0.47×10−10 and 0.27×10−10 m, respectively).

Hydration thermodynamics and hydrodynamic (Stokes) radius of the lanthanide ions

  • Institute of technology/ Baghdad
  • Contact:Muhammed J. Kadhim
  • Application invited for:hydrodynamic (Stokes) radius of the lanthanide ions


Biochemical and physiological properties depend on the size of ions and the thermodynamic quantities of ion hydration in numerous states. The diffusion coefficient (D) of lanthanide series ions (Ln+3) in solution (1.558-1.618 ×10−9 m2 s−1) as calculated by the Einstein–Smoluchowski relation depended on conductance measurements as electro - analytical measurement. The association constant (KA) of Ln+3 ions (210.3-215.3 dm3 mole-1) was calculated by using the Shedlovsky method, and the hydrodynamic radius was (1.515-1.569 ×10−10 m) as calculated by Stokes–Einstein equation. ΔHo, values were obtained from the literature. The thermodynamic functions (ΔGo, ΔSo) were calculated by suitable equations, ΔGo, for ion hydration, had negative values in the range (13.25 - 13.31 kJ/mole), ΔSo also were of negative values, results have been shown in the limit (11.299 - 12.573 kJ/ K. mole).

Animal behaviour & Animals' comfort zone

  • Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
  • Contact:Raufur Rahman Akanda
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Animals' daily behaviour and their response to critical situation. i.e lack of feed and environmental hazard condition.

Testing the efficacy of grafting machine for soft wood grafting

  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • Contact:Ravindran Chandran
  • Application invited for:Funding agency


Fruit crops play an major role in nutritional security. The supply of true to type of planting materials is very much essential for increasing yield. Production of planting materials through mechanized means will be an effective and precision in production of true to type of planting materials

La educación ambiental comunitaria en los estudiantes de la carrera Licenciatura en Contabilidad y Finanza


Educar a los sujetos del proceso formativo de la carrera de Licenciatura en Contabilidad y Finanzas en el valor responsabilidad ambiental para hacerlos capaces de enfrentar los problemas presentes y futuros del medio ambiente.

Product development

  • JSPM's Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering Pune
  • Contact:Pravin Marotrao Ghate
  • Application invited for:Students


Product for agriculture

Software development

  • JSPM's Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering Pune
  • Contact:Pravin Marotrao Ghate
  • Application invited for:Students


Better management

Sustainable Construction material development

  • SR University, Telangana, India
  • Contact:Gobinath R
  • Application invited for:Research Scholars and collaborators


This project work involves obtaining sustainable construction materials without depleting the natural resources and by using non convetional material development techniques. It involves lot of analysis, simulation based works and the work is initiated under the aegies of Center for Construction Methdos and Materials of SR University

Study of threats associated with cloud infrastructure systems

  • Sumathi Reddy Institute of Technology For Women
  • Contact:Shiva Sai Prasad CH
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Cloud infrastructure is the new euphemism in professional developers view these days round the clock. The rewards of cloud storage and its unique functionalities are absolutely massive and as such it is a concern of phenomenal significance. It offers various outstanding features such as Multi-tenancy, on-demand support, pay per use etc. This paper generates a report on the possible consequences of cloud computing.Processing infrastructure-as-a-Service illustrates the distribution of threats and how cloud doing so can affect their performance.The cloud infrastructure addresses the various situations where the attacks exist also the steps should be followed to mitigate the attacks. The research also tries at classifying steps have to take when using cloud services to reduce the impacts of undesirable consequences and to safeguard data integrity.

Cultivation of Cash Crops using Automated Greenhouse using Internet of Things (IoT)

  • Sumathi Reddy Institute of Technology for Women, Warangal
  • Contact:Mahesh Lakum
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Cultivation is the fundamental wellspring of pay of the general population in a nation like India adding up to 15-16% of the Gross domestic product of the nation. As per the financial overview of India 2018, around 55% of the number of inhabitants in India relies upon cultivating as their wellspring of occupation pay and time has come to acquaint a few changes with supplant those conventional cultivating rehearses with the development of money trims under computerized nursery utilizing IoT through remote sensors, actuators, microcontroller, raspberry pi, GSM module and associating links. In this paper, we have proposed a low-cost greenhouse prototype model which can be afforded by the Indian farmers for the cultivation of cash crops such as saffron, vanilla, sugarcane, etc. and they can carry out the cultivation under this automated greenhouse thus improving their social, economic and financial condition by a great extent.

Project on bio control potential of spermosphere microbioms on rice brown spot pathogen

  • Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam
  • Contact:Sheela
  • Application invited for:Collaborators


Just started

Juventudes e Movimentos Sociais Regressivos nas Periferias da Cidade de São Paulo.


A emergência de agrupamentos juvenis identificados com os espectros políticos de direita e de extrema direita tornou-se recorrente no cenário contemporâneo. Algo, até recentemente, circunscrito a determinadas esferas privadas ou de pouca expressão pública, estes grupos e/ou indivíduos ganharam proeminência e representatividade política. Seja no âmbito institucional bem como no societário, por meio de expressões públicas caracterizadas, muitas vezes, pela intolerância à diferença e ao culto à violência. A atuação desses grupos juvenis coloca novos desafios para a pesquisa sobre juventudes em face das dificuldades teóricas e metodológicas de abordagem desses jovens. Este projeto de pesquisa propõe estudar os grupos juvenis que se auto intitulam “de direita” tendo como campo empírico as periferias da cidade de São Paulo. Serão abordados etnograficamente reuniões, eventos e atos públicos promovidos por esses jovens. Complementarmente serão realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com os jovens participantes desses movimentos. O trabalho pretende estabelecer comparações entre os grupos juvenis autointitulados conservadores que atuam nas periferias. Visa-se por meio dessa comparação compreender as possíveis linhas de continuidade entre os grupos juvenis conservadores nos diferentes espaços associativos das periferias, suas percepções sobre as políticas públicas voltadas à juventude e os possíveis elos de intercâmbios políticos, ideológicos e representacionais entre esses grupos.

A Python Environment for Numerical Continuation Methods

  • Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria
  • Contact:Jafar Anafi
  • Application invited for:collaborators


Developing computer models is a natural part of scientific computing. These models typically combine components of mature scientific software of varying levels of complexity. Using low-level software libraries leads to a better performance when running the computer model, but slows down and distracts from model development because of the need to deal with software related technical details. High-level interactive programming environments such as Python simplify and speed up the development of computer models but the speed of the numerical solution of the model may be unacceptable for many research problems. One way to solve such problems is to write Software wrappers and make classical low-level sources available in a Python environment.

V10i2 = Vol 10, No 2(2018) DOI: 10.5101/nbe.v10i2.p117-128 Anticancer Drug 5-Fluorouracil in Aqueous Solution by Differential Pulse Polarography: An Assessment of Optimum Conditions


The potassium phosphate buffer as a supporting electrolyte of anticancer drug (5-fluorouracil (5 FU)) was the best among solutions of sodium phosphate buffer and Britton Robinson buffer in differential pulse polarography (DPP) at pH = 7.0 and T = 37 °C. The changes of temperature did not effect on inactivity of the supporting electrolyte (potassium phosphate buffer at T = 10-50 °C), and pH of the solution did not exceed 2% of each 5 °C (at pH = 7.0, by modified thermostat cell). However, the frequency measurements showed clear effect of temperature on diffusion current (IP /μA) of the chemotherapy compound in the range of 20-50 °C and under primary conditions. Then, the polarography measurements of 5-FU drug (at 10 μM, pH = 7 and T = 37 °C) gradually led to the optimum conditions: deposition potential =–0.9 V; drop size = 9.0 mm3; deposition time = 15.0 s; equilibration time = 5.0 s; pulse amplitude = 100 mV; pulse time = 7.0 ms; voltage step = 6 mV; voltage step time = 0.3 s; and sweep rate = 20.0 mV/s. The thermal assessment of 5-FU drug (after achievement of the optimum conditions) in a new thermostat vessel at HMDE by DPP showed that the reaction of 5-FU molecules represented pseudo first order reaction, instead of first order); the secondary waves of 5-FU drug may be due to formation of molecular complexes in aqueous solution and the reduction of 5-FU molecules at mercury surface electrode appeared as physisorption, instead of chemisorption.

V10i3 = Vol 10, No 3(2018) DOI: 10.5101/nbe.v10i3.p224-234 Stability of Anticancer Drug 5-Fluorouracil in Aqueous Solution: An Assessment of Kinetic Behavior


Spectroscopic measurements of pharmaceutical compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) drug was achieved in solvents with different polarity. The drug gave clear absorption peak at 259, 269, 270 and 266 nm in hexane, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol, as well as phosphate buffer respectively, which was consistent with the standard values in literatures. The results of extension coefficient (ε) and wave length (λmax) showed reduction in polar medium as compared to non-polar medium. The calibration curve of 5-FU drug was achieved by using serials solutions dissolved in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4 and T = 37 °C) within the range of 1×10–6 ~ 1×10–4 M. The stability of 5-FU drug was studied in phosphate buffer at pH = 5, 6, 7, 7.4 and 8 with 1×10–5 M and T = 37 °C, according to the equation of first-order reaction. The hydrolysis of 5-FU disappeared at alkaline solution, but had noticeable hydrolysis in acidic solutions with the rate constant 25, 14 and 20 at pH of 5, 6 and 7 respectively. The calculation of molar extension coefficient and half-life (t1/2) showed same sequence of 5-FU hydrolysis. Then, rearrangement of obtained results offered complicated reversible equilibrium state by the combination between thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of 5-FU hydrolysis; with Keq = 8.46, 6.11 and 142.8 at pH of 5, 6 and 7 respectively. The acidic hydrolysis of 5-FU occurred spontaneously within free energy (ΔG) did not exceed 10 kJ/mol, which meant the electro motive forces of interactions were weak, notable to release energy such as Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding.

Where can I find Justice?


This project comes from the necessity to fight against politics and money interfering in the judicial process in Brazil and the main study will be a proposition to change Justice the way it is today.

Where can I find Pindorama people?


Pindorama was the name indigenous people called the country where Brazil took place by the Portuguese. This project is to collect historical evidence of the genocide of these original people and how much of their land is being taken from them. There is an urgent call for these peoples whom suffered from the colonial times until these days.