Deep learning needs lots of data for training; however, in some industrial applications, the significant amount of data may not be available, limiting the deep learning approach. Modern techniques like transfer learning and generative adversarial networks show some hope to solve this challenge. The objective of the project is to propose new techniques for deep learning training.
Deep-learning networks are susceptible to butterfly effect wherein small alterations in the input data can point to drastically distinctive outcomes, making the deep learning network inherently volatile. Thus, the output of deep learning network may be controlled by altering its input or by adding noise. Research has shown that it is possible to fool the deep learning network by adding an imperceptible amount of noise in the input.
Generative Adversarial Networks may have potential to solve the text-to-image problem, but there are challenges in using GANs for NLP. Image classification have got benefitted with large mini-batches and one of the open question the question https://distill.pub/2019/gan-open-problems/#batchsize is if they can also help to scale GANs
Bacterial exotoxins role in food environment
Biofilms role in food environments in competition
Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Designers use this process to help critique their products. LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision
Source separation may refer to: Signal separation, the analysis of mixtures of signals Blind source separation, the separation of a set of source signals from a set of mixed signals, without the aid of information (or with very little information) about the source signals or the mixing process Source separation (recycling), where each material is cleaned and sorted prior to collection Waste sorting, the process by which waste is separated into different elements Urine separation, the separate collection of human urine and feces at the point of their production, i.e. at the toilet or urinal
يتناول تاريخ البويهيين
يتناول المظاهر العمرانية للمغول
يتناول اهم المدن التي بناها المغول
اهم الأسباب التي أسهمت في تطور اقتصاد اليابان
Remote sensing techniques offer fast access to information about soil conditions and have been applied over a number of regions worldwide for mapping physical and chemical properties of bare ground. However, in case of surfaces covered with vegetation i
Technology has provided opportunities to make more precise measurements, causing a major shift from qualitative definitions to quantitative ones to take place
The objectives of this study were to determine the degree of spatial variability of some soil physical and chemical properties,
The data and information security are considered a significant problem in networks especially in the Internet of Things (IoT) systems. In this paper, we design a completely implemented security system for the IoT based on existing standard internet protocols. The main protocol that has been improved in this paper is the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol. The public key cryptography (RSA) has been used as a cryptography algorithm in this proposed work. We present an implemented architecture and system based on low-power hardware scheme convenient for IoT environment.
Goal: To conbribute to the advancement and international discussion of both theory and method for enquiry into pre-historic architecture, the agency of craftspeople making cultural heritage, its relationships to landscape, and also to contribute to the discipline of material culture studies through this research and discussion.
Goal: Seeking ways, knowledge, knowledge forms and collaborative partners to formulate and demonstrate virtuous narratives, incl designs for the planet that are culturally relevant, incl especially work with craftspersons and artisans.
Goal: Transforming the modernistic architecture of the welfare society into livable and efficient neighbourghoods. Focus on a future interpretation which optimize both the expression and the comfort. Methods: Practice-Based Research, Case studies, Surveys, Integrated research
Synthesis of hybrid nano materials from fossil wastes
Production and design of pavers brick from plastic waste to increase plastic waste
Continuous Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil using hybrid catalyst
Precast connection system in structure element must be designed in such way to result in required behaviour, such as plastic hingesmust be well-planned to be able to shed earthquake energy and to limit seismic loading that goes inside the structure. This research is experimental study that precast beam connection which is modeled using steel plate. The result of this model design use to compare the occurence of structure deformity rigidity in monolith concrete construction (BN) and precast concrete (BP1 and BP2). The testing dimension consists of column with the size 300x300 mm and height 3300mm, beam 200x300 mm and width 3300 mm, with steel plate 200x400x8 mm and 300x400x8. This study resulted in monolith testing material (BN) produces average value 47.8 % from its previous rigidity, BP1is 57.13% from its previous rigidity, and BP2 is 52.22% from its previous rigidity
International certification of corporate social responsibility, with system B
Quantitative research to diagnose the effectiveness of Social Marketing to Prevent disease and strengthen health promotion programs
Qualitative and quantitative research to apply the goals and objectives of SDG 2030, for Municipalities
يهدف الى تعرف مستوى الانفتاح على الخبرة لدى طلبة الجامعة وعلاقته بمتغير ادارة الذات
يهدف الى تعرف مستوى الصمود النفسي
يهدف الى التعرف على مدى ادمان الانترنت لدى طلبة المرحلة الثانوية وعلاقته ببعض المتغيرات
Knowledge is at the root of change and transformation. Therefore, one of the specific goals of this project is to collect qualitative and quantitative data on the food itineraries of older people. This data will be used to explore whether they are keeping safe, healthy and culturally acceptable food practices; what their possible needs are; and what impact these needs could have on the food production and distribution chain, as well as on the social, commercial and/or catering services of the places where we carry out the fieldwork. Research questions are organized around three axes: What, How, Why.
ABCD is an assessment battery developed for children with DCD. It has been validated in India initially. We would like to develop normative values and validate in other countries
Rock Painting of India with Special Reference to Central India
Esse projeto objetiva desenvolver estudos que aprofundem no conhecimento sobre as relações desenvolvidas entre as organizações e a sociedade, contribuindo para a compreensão das mudanças sociais e culturais que influenciam a composição das sociedades contemporâneas. São temas de estudo ancorados nesta linha de pesquisa: estudos que abordem temas como cultura, comportamento organizacional, trabalho, diversidade, identidade e poder nos diversos formatos e suas fronteiras; as relações e comportamento de consumo; as organizações sociais; a sustentabilidade; a responsabilidade social; e ainda incluem-se aqui as pesquisas sobre perspectivas do ensino de administração para o desenvolvimento regional.
O objetivo deste projeto é propor um modelo de referência para a medição do desempenho das micro e pequenas empresas de serviços (MPEs) com base na prática de hospitalidade, de forma que se identifique os principais problemas limitantes à suas práticas, além de criar as bases para o estabelecimento de indicadores de benchmarking de hospitalidade que contribua para o aumento da competitividade das empresas de serviços, tanto local, regional e global. O projeto envolve pesquisas de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa, envolvendo estudos de casos. Os resultados esperados são: a criação de um modelo melhores práticas de hospitalidade, a elaboração de uma tabela de indicadores para as práticas de hospitalidade direcionada para as MPEs.
Desarrollar las competencias básicas para el desempeño de los profesionales de la educación en su formación continúa
Búsqueda de métodos didácticos que permitan desarrollar el pensamiento interdisciplinar de docentes universitarios y los profesionales que estos forman.
Use of blockchain technology to commercialize distributed energy
Os objetivos específicos deste projeto são: 1) Caracterizar um sistema adesivo experimental de dois frascos, contendo diferentes concentrações (1%, 3% e 5%) de silicato de sódio e silicato de magnésio visando avaliar propriedades de selamento, resistência mecânica, biocompatibilidade e efeitos antimicrobianos. 2) Avaliar a efetividade de técnicas de tratamento da dentina visando melhorias na adesividade e na diminuição da permeabilidade dentinária/ sensibilidade pós-operatória..
The AAi2Lab+ project is inspired by broad conceptions of creativity and innovation as inducing forces of social and institutional co-evolution, of exploring the potential of documentary and of artistic photography and mapping, combined with qualitative and quantitative approaches, for making imaginative questions on space appropriation, urban perception and socio-cultural diversity, as well as for addressing transversal problems within interdisciplinary debates on Architecture, City and Territory.
This project aims to achieve an intelligent release system of granular urea based fertilizer coated with CaCO3 and MgO nanoparticles. The work will seek to: a) determine the influence of the parameters used in the preparation of coated urea granules on properties fundamental to the release kinetics of macro and micronutrients; b) characterize the urea granules in relation to the properties that influence the controlled release of the fertilizer; and c) determine the efficiency of coated and uncoated granulated urea on the cultivation of eucalyptus seedlings.
This research project has as its general objective the preparation, characterization and evaluation of photodynamic efficiency of polymeric lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanospheres linked or not to polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) molecules, containing phthalocyanine of gallium (GaPc) as a photosensitizer in reducing the viability of MCF-7 breast tumor cells. The influence of parameters involved in the preparation of nanospheres on nanoparticulate properties will be studied by chemometric procedures. Experiments will be performed to evaluate the effect of photosensitizer encapsulation on GaPc photobleaching as well as on the side effect of photosensitivity on non-cancerous cells.
Pre clinical in vivo study on animal model (ovine) to assess the biocompatibility, integration and tolerance of 3D printing in Policaprolacton graft in laryngotracheal reconstruction.
Virus-like particle (VLP) technology represents a most exciting approach for the produce of efficient and immunogenic vaccine platform. In order to study the possibility of plant virus like particles, as new carrier to identify outer surfaces for epitope insertion and display foreign epitopes on the plant virus CP surface that whould not effect VLP formation, plant virus coat protein (CP) gene construct is going to investigating and engineering by using bioinformatics information and foreign epitope secondary structure will predicte by MODELLER software and will genetically inserte at the surface of plant virus CP.
Uma abordagem em Educação Sexual voltada para a perspectiva da Epistemologia da Ciência e a Filosofia da Ciência.
In dryland agriculture, improving the soil moisture storage and to influence the nutrient availability specifically in vertisols to improve crop yield.
Objective of this project is to simulate the stable RF amplifier for high frequency applications using ADS. The optimized design will be fabricated and tested in Research lab for commercialization
Objective of this project is to simulate the Low Noise Amplifier for high frequency applications using ADS. The optimized design will be fabricated and tested in Research lab for commercialization
Risks and conflicts are subjective events that interfere with the development of software projects. Because risks and conflicts cannot be completely eliminated during the project schedule due to complexity arising from unique characteristics, variability, lack of data, structure, and deviation in prediction/estimation. Many different techniques and tools have been developed to support better project scheduling, but the quantification of risk factors and conflicts has not been adequately considered. In it, the most challenging problem is estimating the time and resources for each specific task in project scheduling. Most research on software project risk analysis focuses on finding the link between risk factors and project outcomes. The goal of risk and conflict management problems in software projects is to provide a multi-objective optimization plan to manage and minimize its level of damage. Therefore, it is almost impossible to find exact algorithms in polynomial time. Then, we need to consider the design of optimal algorithms with the best approximation to help accurately predict, quantify risks, conflicts, as well as their consequences, impact on the project from the critical process, is project planning.
Diffusion coefficient (D) and radiuses of inorganic charge ions (R) in different environments is of importance in scientific fields, explaining certain features of ions. D values were obtained using the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation depending on limiting molar conductivity (λo) of inorganic charge ions. Inorganic ions have D values at the range of 1−3×10−9 m2.s-1, except hydroxyl and hydrogen ion (5.2×10−9 and 9.1×10−9 m2.s-1, respectively). The hydrodynamic radius R for diffusing ions was calculated using the Stokes–Einstein equation based on D values. Inorganic ions have R, values at the range of 1−3×10−10 m, except hydroxyl and hydrogen ion (R=0.47×10−10 and 0.27×10−10 m, respectively).
Biochemical and physiological properties depend on the size of ions and the thermodynamic quantities of ion hydration in numerous states. The diffusion coefficient (D) of lanthanide series ions (Ln+3) in solution (1.558-1.618 ×10−9 m2 s−1) as calculated by the Einstein–Smoluchowski relation depended on conductance measurements as electro - analytical measurement. The association constant (KA) of Ln+3 ions (210.3-215.3 dm3 mole-1) was calculated by using the Shedlovsky method, and the hydrodynamic radius was (1.515-1.569 ×10−10 m) as calculated by Stokes–Einstein equation. ΔHo, values were obtained from the literature. The thermodynamic functions (ΔGo, ΔSo) were calculated by suitable equations, ΔGo, for ion hydration, had negative values in the range (13.25 - 13.31 kJ/mole), ΔSo also were of negative values, results have been shown in the limit (11.299 - 12.573 kJ/ K. mole).
Animals' daily behaviour and their response to critical situation. i.e lack of feed and environmental hazard condition.
Fruit crops play an major role in nutritional security. The supply of true to type of planting materials is very much essential for increasing yield. Production of planting materials through mechanized means will be an effective and precision in production of true to type of planting materials
Educar a los sujetos del proceso formativo de la carrera de Licenciatura en Contabilidad y Finanzas en el valor responsabilidad ambiental para hacerlos capaces de enfrentar los problemas presentes y futuros del medio ambiente.
Product for agriculture
This project work involves obtaining sustainable construction materials without depleting the natural resources and by using non convetional material development techniques. It involves lot of analysis, simulation based works and the work is initiated under the aegies of Center for Construction Methdos and Materials of SR University
Cloud infrastructure is the new euphemism in professional developers view these days round the clock. The rewards of cloud storage and its unique functionalities are absolutely massive and as such it is a concern of phenomenal significance. It offers various outstanding features such as Multi-tenancy, on-demand support, pay per use etc. This paper generates a report on the possible consequences of cloud computing.Processing infrastructure-as-a-Service illustrates the distribution of threats and how cloud doing so can affect their performance.The cloud infrastructure addresses the various situations where the attacks exist also the steps should be followed to mitigate the attacks. The research also tries at classifying steps have to take when using cloud services to reduce the impacts of undesirable consequences and to safeguard data integrity.
Cultivation is the fundamental wellspring of pay of the general population in a nation like India adding up to 15-16% of the Gross domestic product of the nation. As per the financial overview of India 2018, around 55% of the number of inhabitants in India relies upon cultivating as their wellspring of occupation pay and time has come to acquaint a few changes with supplant those conventional cultivating rehearses with the development of money trims under computerized nursery utilizing IoT through remote sensors, actuators, microcontroller, raspberry pi, GSM module and associating links. In this paper, we have proposed a low-cost greenhouse prototype model which can be afforded by the Indian farmers for the cultivation of cash crops such as saffron, vanilla, sugarcane, etc. and they can carry out the cultivation under this automated greenhouse thus improving their social, economic and financial condition by a great extent.
A emergência de agrupamentos juvenis identificados com os espectros políticos de direita e de extrema direita tornou-se recorrente no cenário contemporâneo. Algo, até recentemente, circunscrito a determinadas esferas privadas ou de pouca expressão pública, estes grupos e/ou indivíduos ganharam proeminência e representatividade política. Seja no âmbito institucional bem como no societário, por meio de expressões públicas caracterizadas, muitas vezes, pela intolerância à diferença e ao culto à violência. A atuação desses grupos juvenis coloca novos desafios para a pesquisa sobre juventudes em face das dificuldades teóricas e metodológicas de abordagem desses jovens. Este projeto de pesquisa propõe estudar os grupos juvenis que se auto intitulam “de direita” tendo como campo empírico as periferias da cidade de São Paulo. Serão abordados etnograficamente reuniões, eventos e atos públicos promovidos por esses jovens. Complementarmente serão realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com os jovens participantes desses movimentos. O trabalho pretende estabelecer comparações entre os grupos juvenis autointitulados conservadores que atuam nas periferias. Visa-se por meio dessa comparação compreender as possíveis linhas de continuidade entre os grupos juvenis conservadores nos diferentes espaços associativos das periferias, suas percepções sobre as políticas públicas voltadas à juventude e os possíveis elos de intercâmbios políticos, ideológicos e representacionais entre esses grupos.
Developing computer models is a natural part of scientific computing. These models typically combine components of mature scientific software of varying levels of complexity. Using low-level software libraries leads to a better performance when running the computer model, but slows down and distracts from model development because of the need to deal with software related technical details. High-level interactive programming environments such as Python simplify and speed up the development of computer models but the speed of the numerical solution of the model may be unacceptable for many research problems. One way to solve such problems is to write Software wrappers and make classical low-level sources available in a Python environment.
The potassium phosphate buffer as a supporting electrolyte of anticancer drug (5-fluorouracil (5 FU)) was the best among solutions of sodium phosphate buffer and Britton Robinson buffer in differential pulse polarography (DPP) at pH = 7.0 and T = 37 °C. The changes of temperature did not effect on inactivity of the supporting electrolyte (potassium phosphate buffer at T = 10-50 °C), and pH of the solution did not exceed 2% of each 5 °C (at pH = 7.0, by modified thermostat cell). However, the frequency measurements showed clear effect of temperature on diffusion current (IP /μA) of the chemotherapy compound in the range of 20-50 °C and under primary conditions. Then, the polarography measurements of 5-FU drug (at 10 μM, pH = 7 and T = 37 °C) gradually led to the optimum conditions: deposition potential =–0.9 V; drop size = 9.0 mm3; deposition time = 15.0 s; equilibration time = 5.0 s; pulse amplitude = 100 mV; pulse time = 7.0 ms; voltage step = 6 mV; voltage step time = 0.3 s; and sweep rate = 20.0 mV/s. The thermal assessment of 5-FU drug (after achievement of the optimum conditions) in a new thermostat vessel at HMDE by DPP showed that the reaction of 5-FU molecules represented pseudo first order reaction, instead of first order); the secondary waves of 5-FU drug may be due to formation of molecular complexes in aqueous solution and the reduction of 5-FU molecules at mercury surface electrode appeared as physisorption, instead of chemisorption.
Spectroscopic measurements of pharmaceutical compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) drug was achieved in solvents with different polarity. The drug gave clear absorption peak at 259, 269, 270 and 266 nm in hexane, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol, as well as phosphate buffer respectively, which was consistent with the standard values in literatures. The results of extension coefficient (ε) and wave length (λmax) showed reduction in polar medium as compared to non-polar medium. The calibration curve of 5-FU drug was achieved by using serials solutions dissolved in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4 and T = 37 °C) within the range of 1×10–6 ~ 1×10–4 M. The stability of 5-FU drug was studied in phosphate buffer at pH = 5, 6, 7, 7.4 and 8 with 1×10–5 M and T = 37 °C, according to the equation of first-order reaction. The hydrolysis of 5-FU disappeared at alkaline solution, but had noticeable hydrolysis in acidic solutions with the rate constant 25, 14 and 20 at pH of 5, 6 and 7 respectively. The calculation of molar extension coefficient and half-life (t1/2) showed same sequence of 5-FU hydrolysis. Then, rearrangement of obtained results offered complicated reversible equilibrium state by the combination between thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of 5-FU hydrolysis; with Keq = 8.46, 6.11 and 142.8 at pH of 5, 6 and 7 respectively. The acidic hydrolysis of 5-FU occurred spontaneously within free energy (ΔG) did not exceed 10 kJ/mol, which meant the electro motive forces of interactions were weak, notable to release energy such as Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding.
This project comes from the necessity to fight against politics and money interfering in the judicial process in Brazil and the main study will be a proposition to change Justice the way it is today.
Pindorama was the name indigenous people called the country where Brazil took place by the Portuguese. This project is to collect historical evidence of the genocide of these original people and how much of their land is being taken from them. There is an urgent call for these peoples whom suffered from the colonial times until these days.
The study of asexual reproduction is a core issue in evolutionary biology. One reason is that, despite the two-fold cost of sex, asexual reproduction is uncommon among most animal taxa Geographical parthenogenesis predicts that asexual reproduction is relatively common on islands. One explanation is that parthenoforms more easily colonise insular environments, since a single female is sufficient to establish a new population. However, detailed studies on the origin and history of colonization of asexual taxa on islands are scarce. We recently made an unusual report of three parthenoforms of Empoasca leafhoppers on Madeira Islands. This extraordinary finding can be interpreted as a natural variation of reproductive biology in insland populations, the result of hybridization or an infectious case of parthenogenesis. We propose to study the origin and history of island colonization and the reproduction of Empoasca leafhoppers in the Madeira archipelago through a multidisciplinary approach.
erá alimentada com a cianobactéria Arthrospira platensis exposta a PAHs do óleo oriundo de derramamento em praia do litoral do Nordeste brasileiro.. A Artemia salina por sua vez, será usada para alimentação de animais adultos de Danio rerio (zebrafish), e então, realizar os análises moleculares, transgeracionais, fisiológicas e comportamentais, completando com análise da bioacumulação por transferência trófica, bem como avaliar a eficiência da biorremediação em relação aos danos causados pela água contaminada com petróleo.
O uso de substâncias psicoativas tem se tornado um problema de saúde pública mundial e mesmo com a implementação de políticas públicas de saúde para controle e combate ao uso abusivo destas substâncias, o número de usuários vem aumentando exponencialmente. O uso abusivo de múltiplas substâncias psicoativas, sendo a cocaína e o seu subproduto o crack as de maior consumo e que causam maior dependência; já que atuam no sistema nervoso central ocasionam alterações neurocomportamentais como, por exemplo, distúrbios cognitivos (alterações de atenção e memória) bem como alterações de funções executivas. O objetivo deste estudo será verificar através de uma avaliação qualitativa, mediante aplicação de instrumentos específicos, as alterações cognitivas ocasionadas pelo uso abusivo destas substâncias e sua relação com os aspectos socioeconômicos, culturais e educacionais.
New indole-based hybrid heterocyclic scaffolds will be identified as anticancer agents based on Schrodinger’s software. These molecules with varied structural modifications will be synthesized, well-characterized, and evaluated for in vivo and in vitro anticancer properties to establish structure-property relationships. Thus, the lead molecule will be identified.
New poly(pyrrole)s will be synthesized electrochemically and their nano-composites will be prepared and characterized. Their bio-sensing applications will be investigated and new devices will be fabricated as an analyzing tool.
NMR-based studies on metabolites in combination with LCMS tool: Characterization of various metabolites in biosamples.
Kolkata popularly known as the ‘City of Joy’ becomes the ‘Theatre of Dreams’ during Durga Puja. Having started in the 16th century the legacy and age-old traditions have been successfully passed down to present generations. The magnanimity of this event can be inferred by observing the radical transformation of the city. The dazzling lights along with ethereal artistry enthrals one and all, as every nook and corner of the city comes to life for this weeklong event which otherwise remains unruffled for the rest of the year. The main aim of this paper is twofold - firstly to figure out how human behaviour and perception towards a particular environmental setting varies before and during Durga Puja and secondly to identify the possible factors that drive people to readily participate in organising this weeklong event in spite of obstacles. Two distinct cases have been considered for furthering the arguments and analysis.
Spaces when given a definitive meaning becomes a place. Each place has its own physical and social structure, set of activities and character which helps in establishing the urban imageability by enabling it to be easily identifiable to people. Public places allow a high degree of social engagement by encouraging a diverse mix of values and cultures of each individual in a particular setting. The sense of visual perception and cognition have allowed people to interpret public places in their own way based on its impact in their everyday lives. The transmission of the Sars-CoV-2 virus at the community level has affected millions worldwide causing implementation of stringent rules like nationwide lockdown, provision for emergency services only, social distancing and self-isolation. As a precautionary measure public places have been shut down completely. Like every other pandemic, this too will subside in future leaving behind life lessons on preparing for more resilient places. The burning question that arises is: How are we going to cope with our inadequacies and prepare a holistic framework for resilient public places within the urban fabric as part of our preparedness for not only COVID-19 but also post-pandemic situation in future? This paper aims to provide comprehensive urban design guidelines for consolidating the existential arguments that surrounds COVID-19 in public places and reinforcing best possible measures that can be taken for adapting to the ‘new’ normal. A case of urban canalfronts has been deliberated to demonstrate how the urban transformation of social space, recreation and amenities can become re-resilient through urban design principles. The adopted method will intrinsically look for optimized solutions based on case and site study on the key parameters for successful canalfronts like edge conditions, activity nodes, connections and accessibility to retain the significance of the place without compromising public health and safety.
Nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cord occur in about 10–29% of fetuses, and the incidence increases with advancing gestation age. Most are not associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Still, a few studies have shown that nuchal cord can affect the outcome of delivery with possible long-term effects on the infants. Nuchal cord more likely to cause problems when the cord is tightly wrapped around the neck, with results of a tight nuchal cord conceptually similar to strangulation. Umbilical cord compression due to tight nuchal cord may cause obstruction of blood flow in thin-walled umbilical vein, while infant’s blood continues to be pumped out of the baby through the thicker-walled umbilical arteries causing hypovolemia, acidosis and anaemia. Some of these infants have physical features secondary to tight nuchal cords that are distinct from those seen with birth asphyxia. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of tight nuchal cord and explore gaps in knowledge and research areas.